What prevented Socrates know himself?



What prevented Socrates know himself? The ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (469 - 399 years. BC. E.) Sincerely believed that if elected to study philosophy over and put in charge of the people of Athens, "as a gadfly to the horse" so that he does not fell "into a spiritual slumber, and took care of his moral self-improvement and development of intelligence: "God sent me to this city that I would wake every one of you, rushing around all day, begged, blamed incessantly.

He was born with open eyes and with my childhood heard an inner voice, tried to dissuade him from some kind of behavior, something forbidden, calling on the thinking and reasoning. Socrates had read a lot, liked to talk, but nothing ever recorded, and according to the memoirs of Plato, argued that writing in-depth perception and hinders assimilation. Learning that Delphic oracle considers him the most wise philosopher was surprised, but not conceited about himself, but said: "I know that I know nothing, while others think they know something, stressing these words of wisdom about their - it is incomparable with the wisdom of God.

He became famous for his method of birth truth, teaching talent in the conduct of discussions and dialogues, the successful mentoring in matters of morality. Socrates awakened people interested in philosophy and self-knowledge, which is not able to do the crying philosopher Heraclitus, regretting "wet" the souls of men, and laughing at their stupidity and absurdity of Democritus. Those towered over the crowd and he came to her, open to dialogue, not kichas superiority of his intellect, passing their knowledge to adolescents and youths who engaged them in long conversations that together approximate the truth, and teach them at the same time to think logically, reason and analyze.

In ancient Greece were very popular sophists - paid teacher of rhetoric and eristic (art of oratory and argument), who trained as an opponent to win in litigation and conflict. The main criterion for most of them in the selection is primitive profits. Socrates is a man interested in as a moral being, he did not take fees from pupils and treated with hostility to the sophists, respecting, however, their knowledge and avoiding entering them into the controversy for the sake of finding truth. One such contest eminent minds of Socrates and the sophist Protagoras in the discussion "Can I teach the virtues" will lead Plato in his work.

Sophists were researchers rhetoric and created the science of speech, arguing that truth is everyone has their own. Socrates is constantly arguing with them, apart from the research on ethical issues of "self-knowledge, arguing the objectivity of good and evil, asserting that a vice itself punishes. In response to the sophists ridiculed philosopher-educator, that it is better to endure injustice than to arrange. Aristotle, Plato's pupil, student, in turn, with Socrates, will give a definition of sophistry in one of his compositions: "Sophistry - imaginary wisdom, not really ...".
The aim of philosophical reasoning of Socrates was self-knowledge, which took a definite meaning: to know yourself as a moral and social rights. Happy life Socrates equated with virtue, but with a caveat: to do good, you need to know what it is. The philosopher-educator sought in discussions to find a common definition of virtue, having decided that morality is a consequence of the knowledge that if there is no concept, there is no knowledge. Visiting a youth temple of Apollo at Delphi, Socrates has a deep meaning of the inscription "Know thyself ', inscribed sage Chilo over the entrance, and she became the motto of his philosophy.

The most important virtues attributed Socrates: Justice (compliance with the laws of God and human), courage (to overcome the danger), restraint (taming of the passions). Sometimes, reflecting on questions of ethics, he was immersed for hours in itself, completely disconnected from the outside world. He once complained that he still can not "in accordance with the Delphic inscription, to know himself." Refine moral theory of Aristotle Socrates: know and use knowledge - not the same, but virtues can be cultivated - it is a matter of habit.
      
The philosopher-teacher was a master at dialogue, and his speech, at first glance, funny and strange, the blacksmith, donkeys, sheep, found themselves in the end profound. Sometimes he asked his companion, well if he knows the subject, and receiving an affirmative answer, asked him to explain the incomprehensible, in the course of the conversation by asking questions. Socrates was not afraid to speak his interlocutor: "When I ask you, I only have researched the subject together, because I do not know him." This method of searching for the truth son kamnetesa Sofroniska and midwives Finarety called "mayevtikoy" - the art of birth. He asked, for example, the question: "What is justice? What are the essential features define this concept? ", And this became the subject of discussions with leading questions and the transition from private to general.

In Socrates was a lot of listeners, not only because he did not take the tuition fees: the lessons of the philosopher-educator develops logical thinking, and they quickly mastered the art of conversation, the ability to analyze, discuss and draw conclusions. Some of the disciples of Socrates lived in other policy and with great difficulty made their way to Athens, when she went to the Peloponnesian War. Future great mathematician Euclid (Euclid) overcame the night of Megara 40 miles to get to his conversation, Antisthenes of Piraeus, the future founder of the famous school of Cynics, restricting their needs, every day was eight miles, to gain wisdom.

Many of the disciples of Socrates become outstanding scientists, philosophers, politicians, condemn slavery, mindless desire to accumulate, will open the school, immortalize their names, without wars and suffering will push humanity to progress. Even after millennia philosophers, scientists could not compare with him in a pedagogical talent for the long dialogues in search of truth and coaching: "Education - a difficult matter, and improving its environment - one of the sacred duty of every person, because nothing is more important as education itself and their neighbors .... "

Many centuries have passed since that day when Socrates spoke his last words: "We have Asclepius a rooster. So give it, do not forget! ". Different philosophers have understood their meaning: those who think the "last daring" or "joke of Socrates", someone said he sees no mystery - to Asclepius for healing from an illness called life, someone believes that he recalled the recovery the soul after death of the body. But an inner voice teacher could prompt him to bid farewell to the students, the inevitability of the oppressed, and encouraging the meaning of "dry ognelogosa": "We, the philosophers must cock the god Asclepius for healing our sick souls."

Find the notion of moral qualities, to generalize them and thus know yourself Socrates did not have time - to prevent an unfair penalty, but his disciples did not forget teachings of the philosopher-educator:
 
"Who knows himself, knows that it is useful, and clearly understands that he can and what he can not." "Do not stay in the dark about himself, make no mistake, into which the vast majority of people: ordinary people are often interested in foreign affairs, and not seek to analyze themselves. So do not be lazy to do it, but on the contrary, by all means watch out for themselves. "

 
  • What we learn from the School of Life "Socrates?
  • What is the secret meaning put Socrates in his last words?
  • Was Xanthippe quarrelsome wife?
  •  Do I need to teach love?
  •  What sins accused the Greeks of women philosophers Aspasia?