What is transliteration?



What is transliteration? A variety of languages taught in our schools: English, German, French and, of course, Russian. But in any school does not teach one of the most common "language" to date - a transliteration ... What is this language?

Transliteration (the name of a reduction of the word "transliteration") - an unordered transfer of Russian text in Latin letters, numbers, and sometimes also other available characters. It may call itself Russian text in Latin letters.

In contrast to the transliteration transliteration unambiguous and stable rules does not matter. Varies from person to person: some very elemental, when the same word in one and the same text is transmitted in several ways, while others reach a sufficiently coherent set of sometimes overlapping with any standard transliteration, and sometimes individual. Features used varieties transliteration can serve as a kind of ID to the author.

Usually transliterated based on the principle of phonetic correspondences Russian and Latin letters. Often combined reading rules of different languages: primarily compete correspondence from the old Latin transcription of the Polish-German-style (s - j, n - c, s - y, w - ju, me-ja), and later learned English (s - y, c - ts, h - ch, sh - sh, th - yu, I - ya, etc.). It can be used and the visual similarity of characters (w - III or w - w). Some elements of the encoding (eg, h - 4) is representative of the letter from the keypad. Borrowed words (and even individual morphemes) can be transmitted in writing the original.

Translit phenomenon (still untitled) arose in the pre-computer times (in this way, for instance, Soviet seconded sometimes sent telegrams from abroad), but has spread in Internet communications because of the existing (and sometimes existing) problems displaying either enter Russian letters (eg, their absence from the currently publicly available, keyboard). Actively used when communicating via SMS-messages, because the message typed in Latin script, may contain about twice as many letters than when using the Cyrillic alphabet.

Translit similar phenomenon exists in the Bulgarian language and is called shlokavitsa or metodiitsa.

The most typical signs of compliance used in transliterating as follows:

A - A
B - B
In - V, W
G - G
D - D
E - E, YE, JE
E - E, JO, YO, IO
F - ZH, J, G
W - Z
And - I
J - Y, J, I
By - K, C
L - L
M - M
N - N
O - O
P - P
R - R
P - S
T - T
Y - U
F - F
X - H, X, KH
C - C, TS, Z
H - CH
W - SH, W
Shch - SH, SCH, SHH
B -
Y - Y, I
L - '
E - E, JE, EH
U - JU, IU, U
I - JA, IA, A

Disorder and ambiguity of transliteration (sometimes compared to the pre-Cyril and Methodius at times, when, according to the monk brave, the Slavs used the "Roman and Greek literature ... without dispensation") often creates problems with his reading. To avoid confusion, it is desirable to adhere to common 1,111,112. standard transliteration [/url] (Eg, ISO 9).

 
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