What is nanotechnology?



What is nanotechnology? Recently, we often read and hear this word in the media. Also there was a lot of advertising, offering to buy something with the prefix "nano ...".

And what is it?

We know that centimeter - hundredth of a meter, millimeter - a thousandth. A nano just means billionth of something. A nanometer - a billionth of a meter.

Technology (from the Greek. Techne - art, skill, ability and ... logy) - a set of processing, manufacturing, changes in the state, properties, forms, raw material or semi-finished products carried in the process of production. The task of technology as a science - to identify the physical, chemical, mechanical and other laws to define and use in practice the most effective and efficient manufacturing processes. This definition from the dictionary, too, is understandable.

And what do these two words together?

I - a physicist. My specialty - solid state physics. If more precise - a nuclear solid state physics. Almost 40 years ago, Head of the Department of Solid State Physics, Kazan University, Professor Bashkirov at the first lecture in the specialty said to us, third year, tapping on the table: "solid - this is not something that feels solid, and that has an ordered structure.

What is a crystal lattice structure or chemical molecules, taught many. From the relative position and relative numbers of atoms depends not only properties, but also the the resulting material. Everyone knows that the same carbon atoms in the structure of graphite form, and in the other - the diamond. A total of three atoms - carbon, oxygen and hydrogen with small additions are being built all organic matter, bacteria and viruses, and even ourselves.

So, these atoms have a size of just about one billionth of a meter!

The composition of physical and chemical scientists learned how to determine fairly quickly. Harder was to study the mutual arrangement of atoms. In various processes or environmental conditions formed substance with different properties. And this problem by various physical methods was the end of the last century largely solved. Now we can determine where in the structure at a variety of technologies fall into more atoms, on which depend the properties of matter. But their distribution in the mass of the crystal is random, scientifically - Statistics.

And this is for modern technology is not enough.

Appeared nanotechnology make it possible to collect under the control of physical methods of observing the crystals of the desired properties of individual atoms, as parts of the designer. That is, see and move individual atoms in size to one billionth of a meter. Hence the name - nanotechnology.

What are the substances with which the properties are obtained and where they are used - the topic of a separate article.

Now back to the advertising of products with the prefix "nano".

I already wrote in an article on xenon headlights, which made for safety, they were still fashionable. The result was a cheap knockoff of conventional bulbs with a blue coating, which have no relation to this xenon headlamps.

But here the situation is even worse!

Located on everyone's lips, and not everyone understands the prefix wherever they were pristavlyat. What, for example, glue "Nanolyuks"? It is simply absurd! For the adhesive. One billionth of a luxury? In optics, there is a unit with the same name - suite - showing the amount of light. But one of its billionth - complete darkness!

And, taking advantage of the darkness of the people, the market dumped thousands of products with such attachment. See for yourself in the search engines.

And, most importantly that we do not deceive you! The world around us and we ourselves are made up of molecules and atoms, ie, nanoparticles. And any object or substance can be provided to such attachment.

But nanotechnology - is only piece assembly substances from individual atoms.

 
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