Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones?



Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones? Long since our ancestors were caught in the White and Barents seas, not only cod, saffron cod or seal, and walrus ivory - "fish tooth". Sometimes found fossil mammoth. Even a simple tube cow bone - spindle - and that in the hands of skilled craftsmen became similar to the noble. [url=http://shkolazhizni.ru/archive/0/n-26806/] Carved bone 11,111,129. across the North - from Solvichegodsk and Great Ustyug to Archangel. But somehow it happened that the center of bone-carving craft were just Kholmogory.

The first written mention of Kholmogorsky cutters refers to the XVII century, when local "comb master Evdokim Sheshenin and his brothers were summoned to Moscow to work in the Armory, and, subsequently, became the best of its carver.

This is the first name of master bone carver, who preserved for us to archive documents. But before him, or rather before them, brothers craftsmen Shesheninyh were carvers: "... Is podvorotenka - roads fish tooth, wiser notches cut out, and only the neck of the ant to go." The ancient northern epic. That's about it. On the skill of those who even before the XVII century to carve bone. Their names are not informed to us by word of mouth folk art. But, thanks to him, we are well aware that Kholmogorskaya Bonecarve crafts much more than 400 years.

For a long time - it was different. In place of XVII century came XVIII. Who became in time a genuine flowering of Kholmogory artistic carving. In 1703 founded a new capital of the Empire on the banks of the Neva. In order to sparkle and amaze Europe urgently need a beautiful, elegant, extraordinary things. Kholmogorsky masters of their professional level have already been able to do it and were ready to execute the incoming order them.

Most of the custom-made products that period were caskets of all sizes. They could take the form of the trunk lid with the hip, and could be performed by simple boxes with a flat top, whose wooden hull glued bony plates from walrus ivory or conventional tarsus. A revival of monotonous surface of the casket of the plates was stained in green, rarely brown color. Alternating with white painted decorative plates create a unique rhythm of the finished product.

 Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones? Beauty ... Or someone will argue?
 At the plate engraving inflict so-called "ocellar" ornament in the form of concentric circles with a dot-eye in the middle. Or plant - from small twigs with buds and rosettes of flowers. Engraved image was tinted green, red or black, on the one hand, created a definite contrast with the pure white or milky-creamy bone material, and on the other - tying it into a single composition with already-colored plates.

Bone products have become fashionable. They not only were given as mementos to various dignitaries and simply important persons, but also constantly in the king's daily use. So, after the death of Catherine I, a special protocol, describing the Supreme Privy Council found that their personal belongings Empress is stored in two Kholmogorsky casket. Apart from them in the rooms of the Empress were two carved ivory image, respectively - in gold and silver frames.

 Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones? Add ... inkstand and ...
 During the XVIII century the demand for Crafts Kholmogorsky engravers not only declined, it has steadily grown. Expands itself assortment of ivory products, as well as a variety of forms and methods for their decorating. We already have become traditional casket and added snuff box, miniature chest of drawers, bureau and dressing boxes. To the ridge - Stand for watches and plates with portraits. Openwork design a color background plotting, which is used as a foil or silk fabric. And, as a result, every thing becomes a lush and elegant, turning into a work of art. Which greatly contributed and master carver who worked at that time.

 Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones? ... And portraits. Grand Duke Paul Petrovich and Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna
 History has preserved for us a few names. It is Osip Khristoforovich Dudin and an outstanding figure of Russian culture, famous sculptor - Fedot Ivanovich Shubin. The latter arrived in St. Petersburg in 1759 and, with the assistance of Mikhail Lomonosov, is a talented native of Kholmogory, pretty soon received many orders from a wide range of the noble dignitaries that he had "attended to bone carving. It is believed that Shubin carved relief portrait of M. Lomonosov.

At the beginning of XIX century, certain adjustments in the work of masters Kholmogorsky introduced elements of a new architectural style - classicism. Of particular rigor and sophistication acquire the proportions of products, their forms, in which more clearly shows the geometric principle, become more concise, and ornament - small. Extraordinary skill in reaching their work carvers. Such, for example, grew up in the family of a soldier Nikolai Stepanovich Vereshchagin, the flowering of creativity which took place in the years 1790-1810.

 Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones? Cups with portraits. Workshop O. Dudin
 As Dudin, Vereshchagin united in their best works of the tradition severorusskogo bone carving art with elements of contemporary architecture school, which speaks not only about the natural artfulness, but high erudition and culture of the engraver. So far, came a few decorative vases Vereshchagin, one of which was presented to them to Catherine II.

Decorated through a very fine carvings and reliefs, airy openwork relief that emphasize purity polishing bone surface - these products are unique wizard. In 1798, a pair of vases, cone-shaped cutter took on the reigning couple of Paul I and Maria Feodorovna. Today they are stored in Hermitage .

In the late XIX-early XX centuries, Kholmogory artistic carving appears a new characteristic element - mechanics through the thread. And - new names of the masters, virtuoso mastered this technological method. Such as Michael M. Bobretsov and Maxim I. Perepelkin. Teacher and pupil.

The most famous product is the first dish with a carved rim and the monogram "B" in the center, which in 1885 together with bread and salt were handed out Kholmogory who visited the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich.

 Who left his mark on history Kholmogory artistic carving on bones? Soviet carving school. Prosvirin VA 80-ies.
 Maxim I. from 1885 to 1900 was head of the class of bone carving at Lomonosov School, who organized the Arkhangelsk Statistical Committee to maintain the fishery suffers turn of the century is not the best of times. Being a great craftsman, MI Perepelkin a perfect command of technique thread. And although at the time the class thread closed, but who were studying there and picked up from Maxim Ivanovich best VP Guriev, G. E. Petrovsky and VT Uzikov have become the foundation of the human that led to the revival of Kholmogorskaya fishing in 30 -s of the twentieth century.

And since they say that history is a spiral, it is hoped that [url=http://shkolazhizni.ru/archive/0/n-27731] current crisis 11,111,129. Kholmogorsky artistic craft will survive. The main thing that the art of carving is not lost, it is stored and transmitted to the next generation of students. And let in 2007 for the first year of the current school of carving, or modern - SP-27 (Industrial School), made only nine students ... But - they are!

 
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