Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island?



Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island? Patriarch Nikon - personality in Russian history is widely known. His name is linked and church reform, substantially changing the liturgical tradition of Russian Orthodoxy, and the church schism, which led to the appearance of Old Believers, and a significant increase in the role of the First Hierarchs Church in public affairs, and the emergence in Russia of new large monasteries.

Having obtained the rank of patriarch, Nikon, and soon got the title of the Great Emperor, standing almost flush with the king. Incidentally, the full title of Nikon sounded like this: "grace of God the great lord and emperor, the archbishop tsarstvuyuschago city of Moscow and the entire Great and Little and White Russia and DCFA severnyya country and Pomerania and the patriarch of many nations." In the title knowingly mentioned Pomerania and the Nordic countries, among them the Patriarch had a special relationship, there was a significant part of his life and began the ascent to the heights of ecclesiastical authority.

On the activities of Patriarch Nikon in the ShkoleZhizni.ru "repeatedly wrote. Therefore, only tell you about the events in his life, leading ultimately to the creation of one of the largest and richest northern mansions - Connecten Cross Monastery.

Nikon, in holy baptism, Nikita, allegedly born in 1605 into a peasant family near Nizhny Novgorod. At age 12 he had to leave home and become a novice Zheltovodsk monastery, where he stayed until 1624. After returning from the monastery, Nikita married and was elevated to the priesthood. After the death of children and spouses vow as a nun, under the name Nikon was a monk in the Solovki monastery. Since then, the future patriarch closely connected his life with the White Sea.

 Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island? AD Krivshenko. Patriarch Nikon introduces new liturgical texts of the Council of Churches in 1654 in one of the Solovetsky skits Nikon became a disciple of the elder Eleazar, famous for holiness and a former acquaintance with the royal family. With his Nikon went to Moscow to collect funds to build a stone church. Perhaps it was then and there was his first acquaintance with the future Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. In 1639, believing that the elder was deliberately delaying the construction of the temple, Nikon quarreled with Eleazar and fled from Solovki, having had one of the pilgrims to take him to the Pomeranian karbase to the mouth of the Onega.

Voyage nearly ended in tragedy. This is how he subsequently wrote to Nikon: "In summer we mimoshedshem 1639, the future monk, tvorihom procession by sea from the monastery Anzerskago and during some of the excitement of Great morskago nearly potopihomsya, but, on the strength of upovayusche Bozhestvennago Zhivotvoryaschago Cross, Salvation poluchihom before Onega mouth, to hang out to 1,111,116. Kiya Island [/url] , And the glory vozdahom Raspenshemusya on the Cross our Lord Jesus Christ on the hold disposal. The future, then, on the island, in remembrance of their salvation vodruzihom on the spot and the Holy True Cross.

After a miraculous rescue Nikon Kozheozersky went to the monastery, where he soon became a dean. In 1646, while at the convent's Affairs in Moscow, he was adopted by 17 years of Tsar Alexis, Nikon relied upon as a disciple and follower of the elder Eleazar. Apparently, the old man forgave Nikon escape and having a great influence on the Romanovs (according to legend, it was through his prayers was born to King Michael's son Alex), do not let it get closer to the young monarch. By the way, the old man predicted the future of Nikon patriarchate.

 Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island? Kii-island. Monastic cells and body Nadkladeznaya Church Origin Honest Ancient Holy Cross native intelligence, strong character, erudition and piety of Nikon made a big impression on the king. Abbot Nikon has been made in the rank of Archimandrite and appointed rector of the New Monastery in Moscow. And soon elevated to the rank of Metropolitan of Novgorod and Velikolutskogo.

In 1652 Nikon has returned to the island cue, and again had to stick to the island because of the storm. It is believed that this visit to the island, seeing the whole previously set by the cross, Nikon and took a vow to create a monastery on the island. Four years later, has become a patriarch, he received from the king's permission to cue-island "to put the church and monastery sogradit, imyanuemy Stavros (Stavros - cross in Greek).

The construction of allocated huge sum in those days (only the king sacrificed 6 thousand rubles), attributed to the Cross monastery several active monasteries in the north and large areas with 4537 peasants (considered only adult males), so that construction progress is always interested patriarch, was carried out by fast pace.

 Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island? Icon Connecten Cross from the Patriarch Nikon were Connecten Cross Monastery special types. In the midst of a Church reform, which led to a split and not adopted by the monks of the monastery Solovetsky that fell into open opposition. Influence Solovetskaya monastery in the north was great, he's the patriarch sought to counter the spiritual power of a large new monastery, he gathered the elders and revered Christian shrines. The first monks were transferred to the monastery of Connecten Syrinskoy desert, the elder of which, groin, head of construction.

To raise the value Connecten monastery, its abbots immediately began to appoint archimandrites. The first was John, specifically for this raised to the rank in 1656. By the way, this tradition continued until 1884, when the rank of Archimandrite received Juvenal, translated into cue from the abbots Krasnogorskiy monastery .

On cue sent not only to monks, farmers and builders, in 1657 on the island sent a detachment of dragoons and gunners with guns, a few years have been used to suppress the rebellion of splitters in Solovki.

 Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island? Kii-island. Church of the Nativity of the Virgin and the bell But most importantly, the monastery received the holy, which had neither a monastery in Russia. Messengers of the Patriarch in Palestine organized the manufacture of a large cypress cross, the size of the one on which Christ was martyred, and the acquisition of relics - part of the tree of the Cross and the Robe of the Lord's holy relics from the places associated with life and death of Christ, the Virgin Mary, John the Baptist. Overall, the cross placed over three hundred particles Christian shrines, including the power of God's saints.

From Palestine Cross was originally brought to Moscow, it finalized, decorated with gold and jewels. For a time he was put on Red Square, where pilgrims could not only pray in front of him, but to touch the holy relics. Naturally, the rumor of the appearance in Russia of such shrines spread quickly. Now, to reverently touch the stone of the Holy Sepulcher, or a piece of wood, watered with the blood of the crucified Christ, did not have to go to Palestine. When the Cross solemnly sent to the cue-island, followed immediately pulled the pilgrims.

 Why Patriarch Nikon has established a monastery on the White cue-island? New Connecten Cross in the cathedral Krestovozdvizhensky Currently Connecten cross is in the Moscow Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh a wren, where he was transferred to August 1991. After closing in 1922, the monastery he had for some time remained in the temple, and then kept in the anti-religious museum in Solovki, where he was sent to Moscow in the Historical Museum. Prior to 1923 Crest only once left the monastery. Before landing the British to the island it had to take the mainland, but even then he had lost part of the holy relics, yet some part of the relics, gold and jewels salary has already been lost during the Soviet years.
  
Last Patriarch Nikon had come on cue-island in 1660 and lived in the monastery for nearly a year, personally supervised the construction and sanctified in this period of the Cross Cathedral and several churches.

After the death of Patriarch Nikon Connecten monastery has not lost its significance, and long remained a revered, competing with the famous Solovetsky monastery. Extinction of the monastery began with the reign of Peter I and, especially, Catherine II, when they began to actively seized monastery lands. Before the revolution on the island of McDermott, which was not possible to engage in economic activities other than fishing, was only a few monks led by Abbot, considerably dwindled and the flow of pilgrims.

After the closure of the monastery in its facilities located boarding school for children, and 30's - the rest home. During this period most affected by stone buildings, which almost completely destroyed the interior, rotted or burned floors, doors, window frames, etc. The restoration of the monastery complex started only in 1968. It was possible to stop the destruction and partially restore the appearance of stone buildings. Since the early 90-ies restoration practically suspended, lasts only a few low-budget work.

Currently, resumed service in the newly consecrated Krestovozdvizhensky cathedral where you installed a new wooden cross made in the image was brought from Palestine, but it is now only one small reliquary.

 
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