Who was the first Russian ambassador to England, and why?

Who was the first Russian ambassador to England, and why? Nepeya Osip G.. Vologzhanin. The one known ancestor of all the Vologda regional specialists noble family Nepeinyh. That's who. But the "why" - then more difficult ...

 Again, we ought to return to the coincidental accidents and recall how the British, looking north-east passage to China, suddenly - nor sleep, nor the Holy Spirit - and from which only drew it, so beautiful - they took, and открыли Россию. Ну, а Иван IV Васильевич, великий князь Московский, царь всея Руси, решил не откладывать в долгий ящик то, что можно сделать сегодня и повелел быстренько-быстренько организовать взаимовыгодный товарообмен those most Brits.

Well, our and organized. Go, disobey. It is - a more expensive, Elika health Boyar, dyacheskogo and Podyacheskaya very even dangerous. Not for nothing ... Oh, no accident Vanyusha remained in the memory not only contemporaries, but posterity, as a formidable emperor. Indeed - Terrible. Just like that - with a capital letter.

And swam to us British. Just every year. From one to rest did not have time ... Oh! On the horizon is new flags and pennants.

In 1553 one Richard Chancellor on "Edward Bonaventure". In the 1555-m, again - he is, but not alone. Richard Gray and Robert Killingworth - Attorneys young, but early Muscovy Company, directly with the "birth" had time to get a special Royal Charter exclusive rights to trade with Russia.

Naturally, this respected company to one "Edward Bonaventure" not able to climb. Well, what tovarets along with him, again, it was necessary. We had another ship - "Philip and Mary" - shells. In 1556, a visit to bestow us is a former navigator Richard Chancellor on "Edward Bonaventure" - Steven Barrow. A year later - Anton Jenkinson. Just like honey for those Englishmen in Russia was smeared.

Although ... that's what-what, and honey in the list of exported British goods from Russia just did not. 1,111,116. Fur 1,111,119. were different. And the fox, and squirrel, and wolf, and ermine, and sable ... And sheepskins were. Cat skins and those for some reason, the British needed. Painted, probably in London and Shanghai vparivali Fighters for leopard. Well, of course, fish-meat overseas visitors interested. To be loaded on British ships, dried and salted cod, salted salmon, veal, every ... Of which separately and reflect on consignment some "white". Well, to somehow separate it from other beef. Red there. Or black.

We bought a little-known today as the British "Polteva" meat. And yet - cow and beef. What is different from the beef cow? .. Do not even try, you still will not tell. I do not know! But shipping documents - bills of lading, in a modern way - separate these two types of meat in separate categories.

In general, many of which were taken from Russia by the British. If you are interested, so the entire list of 59 headings can be read. And so strongly in those commodity jungle without going to say? That's how we were a raw materials appendage of Europe for almost five centuries before, and until now. Only in the XVI century as white and black oil were being loaded on ships, but now more and more pipelines ...

And then ... we paid per hundredweight of wax - 4 pound, flax - 20-28 shillings, fat - 16 shillings. Per ton of blubber - 9 lbs.

They sold the same ... Well, sugar, for example. In 1556, his pud in Moscow worth 60 hit the jackpot. If rusty, then "hit the jackpot - three kopecks. Pud - 16 kg. Converting hit the jackpot in rubles, poods in kilograms, consider that a pound at a time "weighed" 10 rubles and get that to buy a kilogram of sugar can be pre-selling the blubber of a kilo and a quarter. As for me, so even a very profitable "Names".

Rather, it was the same for other types of imported goods, basic, central position of which is cloth, ammunition, cotton fabrics. In addition to these, Russia imported sugar has been mentioned, pewter, pharmacy drug, harness, copper, pearls, almonds, raisins, prunes ...

On the revenue fellow judge once heavily. What can we do, our aversion to fiscal authorities, apparently, not today and not yesterday, was born. But the British handed over their taxes regularly. And if they see we can see that in 1555 its activities Muscovy Company started with contributed capital of 6 thousand pounds. And just 9 years later, in 1564, he had already reached 40 thousand. Annual rate of return on capital was 75 percent! Not bad. Ve-ry is not bad!

If someone is the financial, of figures - not very, translate into Russian. Every year, every ruble invested by the Muscovy Company in trade with Russia, brought the British side for 75 cents of profit. Pure. Already, less trade, transport costs and ... tax payments. Well, how - the treasury is sacred ...

And when you consider that contributed capital - this is only part of the net profit? The one that went on accumulation. But more on consumption ... their clothes there, mebelishku, wine ... We've got to nip off! And so ... to have enough. We live, today! And tomorrow, at which kopim ... What will be there, who knows? If this recall of figures from the dry compare ... It turns out that money invested in the Russian naval expedition, pays for one (!) Navigation!

Profitable business was trade with foreign countries. And not only for individual merchants. For villages, through which passes a new trade route - too. Especially - to 1,111,118. Vologda [/url] , Which has become a major transshipment point, in fact - the gateway to the White Sea. All export cargo that came from Central Russia, delivered in Vologda cartage. Depending on the season or on a sleigh or on carts. And past the Vologda pass could not. Because it is here that he stockpiled, awaiting the beginning of navigation, overloaded vessels and on the rivers - Vologda Sukhona and Dvina - went to Kolmogorov. Where in the autumn and winter home place "exchange" of goods.

A direct consequence of increasing trade turnover between the two countries has been improving the welfare of Vologda, its economic growth. In Russia at the time this fact does not even have to acknowledge, much less to prove. It can be seen with the naked eye. Stone construction better than the litmus test, without any words spoken to everyone that entered the city money. And the money considerable.

A construction of the "Stone City" began in Vologda, on the orders of Ivan the Terrible had in 1565. As of this writing, Anton Jenkinson, who was in town just one year later: "The king built a fortress in 2400 fathoms, stones carry over 500 miles, the transportation costs 12 pfennigs hundredweight. Or Thomas Randolph, who celebrated in Vologda two or three years later Jenkinson: "In this city the king built a fortress, surrounded by a beautiful, tall, stone and brick walls. There are many churches, some built of brick in the city ... the big deal here, there are many wealthy merchants.

Not just ... Oh, do not just built a stone Vologda Kremlin. Sovereign (!) Detinets. Indeed, several years in a row (1567-1571 Gg.) Ivan the Terrible and often for a long time been in Vologda, personally supervising the progress of construction of the fortress and the monumental St. Sophia Cathedral. So today ... Well, at least in most of the vologzhan There is a strong opinion - not an ordinary king built a fortress and not an ordinary church ... "No, look what Mahina! And why is personally something ?..». He built the future capital.

Maybe. But not a fact. But like others. All these years, Ivan the Terrible Moscow, with its real or imaginary traces boyar conspiracy, preferred Vologda, which is [b] believed 11,111,115. .

And if this was the main quality of the Ambassador? Togo, who trusts the one who sent it. Oh, and ... In addition. He - Vologzhanin. So it's not hearsay knows the problems of a new trade route. And as for hopes and aspirations of its neighbors, Vologda merchants - thoroughly. And that, he of the Seven Seas to defend their interests would not be? But how is it in the face friends and look when he returns?