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Why Arabia - Saudi?

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 Why Arabia - Saudi? Calling the state its name - it's cool. However, nowadays it can be done either on a new continent, or in the edges, crooked, and very few people want.

Among the edges of the few people right at the beginning of the twentieth century was the Arabian Peninsula. Now it is hard to believe. But then, everyone thought that the days of the tales of fabulous riches of Arabia passed. To find the same wealth of new U.S. oil company Chevron has not yet begun. So hot, arid peninsula of little interest to nobody.

And very few people in the world drew attention to the fact that in 1932 the emir Abdel Aziz of Saudi Arabian clan seized under his authority almost the entire Arabian Peninsula. Full name Abdul Aziz took the whole line, indicating a kind of nobility. So, Abdul Aziz ibn Abdarrahman al-Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah Mohammed Al-Saud (1880-1953) in 1932 became King of Arabia. And he called his kingdom not only Arabia, but Saudi Arabia, that is owned by a clan of Saud. All the same, as the host housing in a communal apartment, not quite believing in the honesty of its neighbors, is aiming his initials spoons, forks and other useful utensils.

I must say, fear Abdel Aziz confirmed sad experience. In 1890, when he was fourteen years old, a neighboring clan Rashidi captured Saud fiefdom, the city of Riyadh, and all they control considerable territory in central Arabia, the mountain plateau of Nejd. The family fled to Kuwait, where he was youth Abdel Aziz. His father, Abdarrahman is able to receive from the Turkish governor (Arabia then was a distant province of the Ottoman Empire) a monthly pension of 60 Turkish lira, and the young heir was involved in nebezvygodnyh amusements, not predatory sightings area of Najd. In addition, it almost daily contact with his cousin, Emir of Kuwait, Mubarak al-Sabah. It was kind of a school of public management. Although about a country and then it did not go. His return would be!

In the spring of 1901 Abdul Aziz has collected a large detachment from relatives and invaded the Najd, robbing the tribes associated with the hostile clan Rashidi. The raid failed, was captured by the rich booty. As a result, young Saud respect from family members, and more than 200 tribes sided with the family of Saud. And in the night from 15 to 16 January 1902 a detachment of sixty men approached Riyadh and "assault group" of twenty soldiers seized the citadel and killed the governor, Rashidi delivered.

I won many friends. Soon, with broad support from neighbors and relatives, who formed a fair army, Abdel Aziz freed from the "usurpers" Rashidi half of Najd.

The Turks, in general, did not care what happens in the wild deserts of 1,111,114. 11111121 Arabia. . But as Rashid was seemingly as a legitimate ruler, on his request to the central authorities have responded and in 1904 sent troops to punish the rebels. But dashing Abdel Aziz regrouped their forces, attacked the "peacekeepers", and they quickly withdrew. And then say: Who wants to fold the head, taking part in sorting out the wild natives?

So, in 1906, justice is done. Rashidi was deposed and, of course, killed.

Abdel-Aziz, returning to otchuyu land made tremendous efforts to establish his kingdom stood firmly. Moreover, he is well armed and taught his army. The new ruler understood: nothing so good no holds painted tent of the Sultan, as a pillar of faith. And Abdul-Aziz has declared itself the Wahhabis. Step, which in the sixteenth century did many European princes, announcing themselves as supporters of the Reformation, that is Christian fundamentalism. Ваххабизм – это фундаментализм исламский, попытка возвратиться к «истинному» исламу, который, как считают ваххабиты, исповедовало поколение Пророка и еще два поколения после него. Потом – говорят они – началась порча, искажение единственно верного учения, попытки приспособить ислам to the customs of the conquered peoples.

I must say that the "primitive" Islam is very suited to the primitive (this does not mean - primitive) lifestyle, which were nomads in the Arabian desert in the early twentieth century. Therefore the approach that the Bedouin life has changed little over thirteen centuries, passed from the sermons of the Prophet. Did they have mastered the firearm.

In that world, which for 1,300 years has moved much further at this time already brewing world war. European powers look at the Ottoman Empire as a dying uncle, trying to figure out who gets what from the considerable assets in the deceased candidate. England kept staring at the rich and oil-rich Iraq. Oil was already ceasing to be medicines sold in pharmacies in half-liter bottles, and turned into a strategic raw material. To the south of Iraq to lay the wild and no one in particular is not needed Arabia.

Home values are represented by ports Muscat and Aden at the outlet to the Indian Ocean from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Well, more and Hejaz, the region on the Red Sea coast, where the Mecca and Medina, and where the Turks back in 1908 had a railway from Damascus. Muscat and Aden is already firmly controlled by the British. What else - the gateway to India. In the Hijaz began to arrive as historians, archaeologists and British intelligence officer (sometimes these functions were combined), in order to make friends with the local petty kings, sheikhs, sultans and incite them to revolt against Turkey in the event of war, not far.

Cash gifts to be distributed in accordance with the importance to the interests of the empire of a field. Therefore, more was in favor with the British governor of Hijaz and Mecca Хусейн ибн Али аль-Хашими (1854-1931). Кроме владения святыми городами, у него было еще одно немаловажное в глазах мусульман advantage - Hashemite tribesmen were Muhammad. And, then, if we talk about the ruler of Arabia - such is better to be Hussein than Abdulaziz. It is clear that Abdul Aziz was of the opinion of the opposite. Therefore, clashes between Hashimi and the Saudis did not cease.

But when the First World War, and they both were on the side of the British against Turkey. The stakes were pretty, especially for the Hashemites. Britain had promised to do two sons Hussein, Feisal and Abdullah, the rulers of the two richest regions: Syria and Iraq, but most recognize King Hussein of Arabia. Promises of Abdul Aziz were modest. June 5, 1916 Hussein al-Hashimi raised anti-Turkish uprising, and in November the same year, proclaimed himself King of Arabia.

But England and France had already concluded a secret agreement on the division of the former Turkish provinces. This agreement is an agreement Saiz-Picot (by name drove the diplomatic negotiations, English and French). Because Syria and Lebanon in accordance with this agreement, withdrew to France, Faisal offered to become king is not in Damascus and Baghdad. And Abdullah instead of Iraq's richest shield part of the desert on the eastern bank of the Jordan River and Dead Sea , Called it the kingdom of Transjordan (Transjordan) and the proposed rules here. They are the same father, Hussein, acknowledged no king of all Arabia, and only the king of Hijaz. The fact that rivals the Saudis had already been promised to the sultanate in the Najd in central Arabia.

Seeds of discord were sown, seedlings were not long in coming. From 1919 to 1924 in the Arabian Peninsula were wars between Abdel Aziz al-Saud family and the al-Hashimi. As a result, Abdel Aziz captured almost the entire Arabian Peninsula and in 1926 in the Great Mosque of Mecca proclaimed himself king of Hijaz and Sultan of Najd and regions. And since 1932, his state became known as Саудовской Аравией. Поскольку управляли и управляют этим государством сыновья и внуки первого короля Абдель Азиза, из клана Сауд. После начала эксплуатации нефтяных месторождений в 1938 году Саудовская Аравия стала одной из самых богатых мусульманских countries.

Rivals, the Saudis, the clan Hashimi, was less lucky. The grandson of Faisal I, too, Faisal, was assassinated in 1958 during the socialist revolution in Iraq. Great joy the country it seems, did not bring, because after a few years in Baghdad, "going away" reigned "Arab socialist" and dictator Saddam . The main advantage of Hussein was that he regularly bought weapons from the Soviet Union, paying for it with money obtained from oil sales.