As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire?



As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire? Гимн уже давно стал одним из важнейших официальных символов государства . Perform hymns began in ancient times, but then it was the solemn chants glorifying or praising any of the gods. In this form they existed prior to the XVIII century. The first state, obzavedshimsya "national anthem" - the official patriotic song, performed in various official occasions, has become Britain. Curiously, the anthem "God Save our magnanimous Queen (King), has existed since the 40th of the XVIII century and became the basis for the anthems of many countries, has never formally approved by, not even a single text that execute in several different ways. In fact, this hymn all that is unofficial.

The idea of its own national anthem of Great Britain quickly spread to Europe. Usually in other countries has been based upon only the music of English hymn composed by Henry Carey, and the words under her composing his own. Originally anthems everywhere existed as informal, to approve them at the level of royalty, governments or parliaments have become much later.

When the whole of Europe took over English national anthem, Russia went its own way. At the end of the reign of Catherine II in St. Petersburg majestically resound: "Thunder wins, resound! Rejoice, brave Ross! ". Word of the informal anthem (again, that official is virtually non-existent), composed in 1791 by Gabriel Derzhavin, and music was written by Osip Kozlovsky, and wrote it to the tune of a very popular time in the music of the polonaise 3/4.

This hymn was extremely popular in the country, but he was destined to only 25 years of life. In 1816 Alexander I, who considered himself after the victory over Napoleon, the main arbiter of the fate of Europe, decided to have this European thing "fight" and issued a decree on the execution of an English hymn tunes at the meetings of the emperor. VA Zhukovsky immediately composed this music words:
"God Save the Tsar!
Glorious long days
Give on Earth!
Proud smiritelyu:
Weak keeper
All Comforter -
All send down! "

 As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire? The author of the famous anthem "God Save the Tsar!" Alexei Fyodorovich Lvov. Drawing from the site ru.wikipedia.org Please note this is not the "God Save the Tsar!" That many of us remember the movie about the "Elusive Avengers" in which the national anthem at the restaurant of the Palace sang Buba Kastorsky. The famous text, too, starts with a line, "God Save the Tsar", appeared in 1833 and existed unchanged until 1917. This text, as well as for the previous hymn, written Zhukovsky (just go with him we have the tradition of one author several times to alter the text of the anthem), and the music was written by AF Lviv, a former adjutant of the emperor. In late April 1834, Nicholas I approved the decree a new anthem. Since that time, and was in Russia heard solemn:
"God Save the Tsar
A strong, sovereign,
Reign in glory
At our glory!
Dread of his enemies,
King Orthodox.
God, King,
Save the Tsar! "

 As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire? Sheet music of the anthem. Drawing from the site www.masterbolt.ru After the February Revolution the old anthem was canceled, but a new way and failed. In Russia, when a number of official events on the melody sung La Marseillaise (French national anthem), "renounce the old world, shake off the dust from our feet!". In other cases, the music sounded AT Grechaninov balmontovskoe "Long live Russia, a free country! Free element of the great doomed! ". There were other ways for the anthem, but the policy, arguing themselves hoarse, and not agreed.

Another hymn appeared in Russia only in 1918. They became the International adopted as national anthem in January 1918 the Council of People's Commissars. After the formation of the USSR, International became a whole-anthem, staying and anthem of the RSFSR. Until 1943, all official events sounded "Arise, ye prisoners of starvation, famine and the whole world the slaves!". When the prospect of ruin to the base of "the whole world of violence" finally lost its relevance, was a new anthem, which, naturally, went thorough Stalinist censorship. Now it was the anthem of the USSR alone.

 As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire? S. Prisekin. Music by Alexander Alexandrov was taken as the basis "Hymn of the Bolshevik Party, written in 1938, AV Alexandrov on verses VI Lebedev-Kumach. Text of Stalin did not like, and it re-written by GA El-Registan and SV Mikhalkov. Of course, the anthem did not forget to mention the Great Leader: "We grew Stalin - allegiance to the people to labor and exploits inspired us!", As well as the continued hard war, there were lines: "We have brought to our army in battles. Invaders despicable the way you dare! We are in battle decides the fate of generations ...».

The new anthem was approved by the Politburo of the CPSU (b) 14 December 1943. He first sounded in the New Year's Eve 1944, but officially began to be performed throughout the country only since March. Music of the hymn continues to be heard now, but with words of recurring problems.

 As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire? Sergey Mikhalkov. Photo from www.litera.ru Since 1956, the anthem more than 20 years, performed without words, as they referred to Stalin, although the text not formally abolished. In 1977 he was adopted by altered Mikhalkov text from which the poet has removed mention of Stalin, but was replaced by military victories to win "immortal ideas of Communism."

In Russia, however, his hymn to reappear in November 1990, following the Government of the RSFSR decree on the establishment of the state symbols. As the hymn November 23, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR adopted the music of "Patriotic Song" MI Glinka. After the collapse of the Soviet Union this music as the national anthem adopted by decree in December 1993, the president of Russia. For 7 years there was a hymn without words, which have not been able to adopt, although invited more than 500 variants.

 As the polonaise became an anthem of the Russian empire? Drawing from the site sotsprof.narod.ru «The Patriotic Song" did not take, because music is clearly inferior to the popularity of the one that was written by Alexandrov. The country continued a controversial debate about a new anthem, with many offered that to keep the old music Alexandrova, for which compose a new text. December 4, 2000, the proposal was approved at the enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the State Council of the Russian Federation, which was attended by representatives of the Duma factions.

Already 8 December 2000 the Federal Constitutional Law "On national anthem of the Russian Federation" was adopted by the State Duma (in conjunction with the laws of the State Emblem and State Flag of the Russian Federation). December 27 a new law came into force. But there was only approved by the music of the anthem, the words to which had yet to compose. It was suggested that some version of the bill with the text of the anthem. The State Duma supported the proposal made by the President, in which lyrics were written by Mikhalkov. And this time the poet was not without political curtsey, the hymn appeared Line "protected by God's native land!", Which is all a matter of heated debate about its conformity with the Constitution.

 
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