Why the Emperor Nicholas I tried to imagine the poet Mikhail Lermontov crazy?



Why the Emperor Nicholas I tried to imagine the poet Mikhail Lermontov crazy? February 18 (March 2, New Style) 1837 cornet of the Life Guards Hussar Regiment Mikhail Lermontov was arrested and taken to the guardhouse. For Guard youth of that time to get to the guardhouse the events quite commonplace. But Lermontov was under arrest, not for hussar "pranks", his offense was, as they say, quite another story. Before him, for like, perhaps, got into serious disgrace only 1,111,112. Denis Davydov [/url] . It appears that the arrest was for Lermontov unexpected. He knew that at the court of negatively perceived his poem "Death of a Poet, but such a reaction is not expected.

Before the death of Pushkin Lermontov in Petersburg society of little interest aroused: regular cornet Guard, the heir of large states, but the young and the potential suitors have not yet fit, seemingly published a story and wrote poems. And suddenly the line that literally pierce:
  "The poet's dead! - The honor -
Pal, slandered rumor,
With lead in the chest and a thirst for revenge,
Drooped proud head !»...


In a few days poems were rewritten in hundreds of copies (writer Ivan Panayev testified that in thousands) and not only became widespread in the capital, but also appeared in other cities of Russia. They were discussing, perhaps, no less than a duel and death of Pushkin. Why authorities' reaction was followed by such a delay?

 Why the Emperor Nicholas I tried to imagine the poet Mikhail Lermontov crazy? Autograph poem "Death of a Poet" The fact that the original poem contained 56 rows, and ended with the words "Shelter singer gloomy and cramped, and in his lips print. It was written the day before the death of Alexander Sergeyevich, and its distribution started on 29 February, when the great poet's heart stopped beating.

Lermontov, who was in this period, patients had not been personally acquainted with Pushkin and did not enter into the circle of people close to him, but about a duel, and possibly death, the poet received from the visited his doctor. Reaction to the death of the poet Lermontov, before whom he admired, and began penetrating these lines that rocks all the Petersburg society. How to set a later investigation, their primary distributor was one of Mikhail Yurevich S. Rajewski.

During the interrogation, Lermontov tells how after the news of the death of Pushkin's poem was born: "Then, as a result of rash impulse, I poured out the bitterness of heart on the paper, exaggerated, incorrect words expressed discordant clash of ideas, not believing that I wrote something reprehensible." Forgive him a little attempt to whitewash themselves, not important, but a few short but capacious words "I poured out the bitterness of heart on the paper."

In fact, in the first version of the poet's death "a special sedition and was not, but it was a deep pain, pierce through the hearts of many. Therefore, the authorities reacted to a poem about peace. The chief of gendarmes AH Benckendorf even considered that "the best on such frivolous antics do not pay attention, then their glory soon fade away.

In a society of Pushkin's death provoked a mixed opinion, continued to spread gossip and fiction, a considerable number of people acquit Pushkin, allegedly acted in "accordance with the laws of honor." Incidentally, this view on the role of Dantes stood close to court circles relative Lermontov kammerjunker NA Stolypin. He called on Mikhail Yurevich in early February and told him the court gossip about the death of Pushkin. Apparently, these certificates to the court to the poet's death, coupled with the already available information, Lermontov, and led him on Feb. 7 to finish the poem is 16 lines, beginning with the words "And you, proud, well-known descendants of famous fathers meanness" ... These are the 16 lines and triggered a furious reaction power.

 Why the Emperor Nicholas I tried to imagine the poet Mikhail Lermontov crazy? Plaque. House number 61 on Sadovaya Street in St. Petersburg this option poem wishers presented to Nicholas I, along with an unequivocal explanation - "appeal to the revolution. It was then, and was followed by a harsh response. Lermontov was arrested and taken to the guardhouse at the General Staff building.

Conducting the investigation "of the impropriety of poetry ..." Benckendorf instructed General Weimarn, which was to interrogate Lermontov and a search of his St. Petersburg and Tsarskoselskaya apartments. Reporting to the Emperor, chief of police and expressed their views on the latest version of the poem: "Introduction to this work boldly, and the end - shameless free-thinking, more than a criminal."

In a memo Benckendorf Nicholas I put the resolution clearly characterizes the level of thinking of the Russian monarch: "... senior medic Guards Corps to visit this gentleman and ascertain whether he is not crazy ...». According to the Emperor, an officer who dared to accuse the government and claimed that it "is the Court of God" can not be of sound mind. Nicholas I was not original, such an opinion held by many rulers, both before him, and after.

The word "criminal", the words of the all-powerful chief of police, materialized in a concrete decision taken by Emperor on the third day. About him Benckendorf formally notified the minister of war: "AL-Guard Hussar Regiment, cornet Lermontov, for his work known to your excellency of poetry, translated the same rank in the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon Regiment: a provincial secretary Rajewski for distributing poems, and especially for his intention to secretly deliver a reduction Lermontov on cornet made by a witness, hold in custody for one month and then send in Olonetskaya province to use the service - at the discretion of Gdask civil governor.

 
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