How does a "midget"? Monaco

How does a "midget"? Monaco March 20 is celebrated the International Day of Франкофонии , межгосударственной организации франкоговорящих стран, заботой которой является сохранение французского языка и культуры. Мы довольно много знаем о Франции, может быть, чуть меньше о Канаде… А, например, о Монако? Мы слышали о принцессе Грэйс, казино в Монте Карло и о налоговом рае. А знаете ли вы, что Монако – самая маленькая франкоговорящая страна в мире? И одна из самых густонаселённых – 16,8 тысяч человек на один квадратный километр. А почему она вообще появилась – такая независимая, посреди могущественной во все времена Франции ?

Omnipresent Hercules
People settled on the Mediterranean coast has long, but assumed that the name of "Monaco" give this part of the coast fokeyskie Greeks, who came to the Ligurian coast. They founded many colonies throughout the Mediterranean, among them, and Masalis Which became Marcel; Nicaea Which became Nice; Ampuriya on the Spanish Costa Brava, Campagna Italy.

There was the name from the Greek words: "моно» – один, одиноко стоящий, и «оикос» – дом, вместе – «моноикос». Фокейцы поставили здесь храм в честь Геракла On the myths of the past on these places during the heroic actions. Perhaps this lonely temple, and prompted the idea to give such a hermit name of the local factory. Owned this land and the Phoenicians, and with II to V century AD here was a Roman Port Hercules Monokiyskogo . Since VI century until the end of X port has undergone many invasions. It was here and hang pirates from North Africa. In 975, Count of Provence defeated the Saracens and added Monaco to his county.

This was the time of the Crusades. Great Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Empire extended to the entire coast from Port of Venus (Venice) to the rule of the Genoese republic of Monaco, and in 1091 his son Henry VI finally gave Monaco Genoa.

Italian period
In 1215 began the construction of fortifications, were already very comfortable small bays and between them - rising to 140 meters above the sea is solid rock. Furthermore, the location on the sea and land routes have been very profitable.

Genoa was one of the so-called Italian Maritime Republics, along with 11,111,144. Venice [/url] , Pisa and Amalfi. Formed in the early XI century, prospered, and gained strength as a result of the Crusades, has won numerous settlements in the Middle East. Genoese ships were built and sold. The whole life centered around the sea: the sea brought mining and commodities, the sea provided food and brought wealth. Strong position on the sea and to strengthen protection of the fleet and the city from the attacks were far from luxurious.

Through crusades, Republic of Genoa widened and grew rich, and - torn by strife from within. Rich merchant families wanted more preferences, and this needed power. Formally, Genoa was ruled by the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the republic. It already provides two poles of power: the Germanic kings, crusaders and the pope. In fact, she managed a third force - the consuls, elected annually to the national assembly of eminent and distinguished citizens of the republic. What appeared more families, the richer they become, the less had the opportunity for each individual. Everyone felt hypochondrium elbow neighbor.

The founders of the princely dynasty
One of the distinguished families in the country and was born Grimaldi , A large and wealthy, not for nothing at the time was in the family and the Consul - Grimaldi, who called on behalf of the city, comes from which he was.

 How does a "midget"? Monaco Grimaldi family did not want to prevent the inducement of the pendulum bipolar power toward the pope and his followers and further the possible takeover by competing families, as happened in other maritime republics. Of course, she made not one, but in alliance with other families. Such alliances, Albergo - A prototype of the current corporations. However, they defended their commercial interests with weapons in their hands.

The history of the capture of the fortress, whose memory captured on Coat of Arms of Monaco 11,111,192. , Widely regarded as a historical anecdote.

Monaco is ideally placed to deal with Genoa, but also master it was not easy. The castle took deception. In the minds of the defenders, obviously does not fit this perfidy: no one could suspect that the enemy disguise Franciscan monks, and freely admitted minister of the cult of the gate. He pulled out from under the sword of clothes, interrupted in custody and opened the gates for their supporters. His name was 11,111,194. [b] Francesco Grimaldi Sinister
[/i] . It is 11,111,192 in 1297. year since then and is the history of the reign of the genus Grimaldi.

Incidentally, the marriage of Francesco was childless, and after his death he was succeeded by his cousin and stepson Rainier I, ruler of Cannes. For almost a century, Monaco existed under a condominium - the territory under the joint administration. Grimaldi is administered, then left the castle. Rainier I became a French admiral. They fought on the side of Genoa, so Antonio Grimaldi led the fleet in the battle against the Republic of Venice and the Catalan graphs.

A [b] in 1395 11,111,192. Using ordinary differences in Genoa, the Grimaldi dynasty took power in a micro state in their hands completely and finally. [b] From that time, and calculated the existence of an independent principality.
More than six centuries it controlled one kind of way, quite numerous, were among them not only Monegasque princes, but Dodges Genoa, archbishops, and ambassadors. However, despite the antiquity and the overall positive impression ", the family was widely known only in narrow circles of the European nobility.

Rest of the world learned of Monaco after marrying Prince Rainier III on the American actress Grace Kelly. The story of Cinderella to this wedding has nothing to do. Daddy Grace was a millionaire, and Grace herself before her marriage had time to receive the award Film Institute. What is sought and that Grace was in a strange and prim Europe, is another story. The fate of the princess still worried romantics worldwide.

 How does a "midget"? Monaco С 1911 года Монако – конституционная монархия, с 1993 – полноправный член ООН. А в 2003 году Международный Монетный Фонд дал Монако статус налогового рая. Правда, статус этот достался княжеству не просто так. В 1962 году президент Франции генерал де Голль went in the military to the question of "tax optimization" by some irresponsible compatriots. Just ordered off the principality of electricity and water charges for refusing to provide financial information about bank accounts of citizens of France.

It was almost a state of war. Not long thinking, His Serene Highness Rainier III, graciously agreed to drive the French out of paradise. Exclusively for the salvation of the country. But other neighbors in the principality is not, and nobody's more the government can not deliver on his knees proud bankers Monegasques . So: "Bring your money" ...