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Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar?

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 Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar? March 14 (24 new style) 1613 Michael Romanov agreed to accept the Russian empire and was officially called the sovereign. How did it happen that in war-torn country and the turmoil king chose a 16-year-old boy, utterly devoid of military talents and wisdom, is also a citizen of the Polish king?

Naturally, over 300 years of the Romanov dynasty came the mass of "credible" justification for the popular election of Michael and his prominent role in ending the turmoil in Russia. And like all really happened? Unfortunately, many of the documentary evidence of election Romanov on the throne were destroyed or substantially redrafted. But as they say, "manuscripts do not burn", individual testimonies have survived, but something can be read between the lines of official documents, such as "Tale of Zemsky Cathedral in 1613."

22 October 1612 the militia under the leadership of Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Cossack detachments Prince Dmitry Trubetskoy stormed the China Town. The fate of the Polish garrison and his henchmen was sealed. First, the Kremlin took Russian boyars, previously swore Polish Prince Wladyslaw, who Pozharskii promised immunity. Among them was the young Mikhail Romanov with his mother, who left immediately in his backyard near Kostroma. Then left the Kremlin and the Polish garrison surrendered.

 Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar? At the meeting of the old miniature Zemsky Sobor in 1613 looks fairly decent and hard to understand what they were guided Pozharsky and Troubetzkoy, abandoning the prosecution of the boyars who were traitors, but that this had created the preconditions for the development of all subsequent developments. During this period, all power was in the hands of the triumvirate, consisting of Pozharskoho Trubetskoy and Minin, but the formal head of state was born Rurikovich Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. Naturally, he and others in the new Russian tsars. But the Prince made an unforgivable mistake - the militia disbanded, leaving in Moscow only a few units. Since then, the main military force in the capital became the Cossack troops of Prince Trubetskoy. Disperse them properly was nowhere, and the opportunity to profit substantially kept them in Moscow.

The main task in this period was the election of a new Russian tsar. In November, a meeting of all classes in Moscow, conducted by the Triumvirate, decided to convene on 6 December in Moscow for the Zemsky Sobor of deputies from all classes of the Russian land, except boyar and monastery peasants. The great distance deputies continued to arrive until the end of January, when the church is already active. In total there were about 800 people.

 Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar? Embassy of the Land Council said Mikhail Romanov to elect him to the kingdom. Thumbnail of the XIX century (copy) in the work of the Cathedral was attended by most of the boyars, previously sworn Vladislav. Under pressure were blocked nominations Pozharsky and Trubetskoy. At the Cathedral, there were two main factions, one supporting the election of the king from among the Russian candidates, the other in favor of the foreigner, proposing a leading candidate of Swedish Prince Carl Philip. The latest candidate supported and Pozharsky. Perhaps he thought that the foreigner will be able to quickly stop the confusion and unify society, and perhaps lead a complicated political game.

Eventually, the church rejected the candidacy of an alien and concentrated on discussing the Russian candidates, among whom were princes, boyars, and even the Tatar princes. For a long time to reach an agreement failed. Then, and was nominated Mikhail Romanov, actively supported by the Cossacks, many of whom had previously been supporters of Tushinsky thief. It seems to have played a role that the Cossacks considered Romanovs his proteges, as the candidate's father was elevated to the patriarchate in the camp of the second False Dmitry.

 Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar? A. Kivshenko. The election of Mikhail Romanov to the throne an effort to defuse the situation, supporters have offered to do Pozharsky on 7 February in the Council recess for two weeks to discuss possible candidates with the residents of Moscow and nearby regions. It was a strategic error, as the Cossacks and the Boyars group had far more opportunities for the organization of propaganda. The main campaign was for Mikhail Romanov, supported by many of the boyars, who thought that it would be easy to keep under its influence, because he is young and inexperienced, and most importantly, like them, "tainted" in the oath Vladislav. The main argument put forward in the campaign boyars that at one time the king before the death of Fyodor Ivanovich wanted to give the kingdom to his cousin Theodore Romanov (Patriarch Filaret), which now languishes in a Polish prisoner of war. Therefore, the throne should give him the sole heir, which is the Mikhail Romanov.

Definite opinion in favor of Michael managed to create. The morning of 21 February, when elections were scheduled in the Kremlin, in modern terms, were protesting the Cossacks and commoners, demanding the election of Michael. Apparently, "rally" was cleverly staged, but later it became one of the facts justify the popular nomination Romanov to the throne. The role of the Cossacks in the election of a new king was not a secret to foreigners. Poles have long called Mikhail Romanov "Cossack protege.

 Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar? On the monument "Millennium of Russia Mikhail Romanov close to Pozharsky and Minin, although they were against his election to the throne the way, there is evidence that this day had not participated in the elections Pozharsky and some of his supporters who blocked the Cossacks in their homes. In addition, the boyars were filed Cathedral petitions from several cities to support the election of Michael. To increase pressure on the Cathedral, the Cossacks broke even at its meeting, demanding to elect Romanov. In any case, elections were held and Mikhail Romanov proclaimed the Russian Tsar. The legitimacy of the vote never not in question. And the fact that it was conducted under the powerful use of administrative resources and pressure on voters, since it is eternal "tradition" in Russia. Curiously, VO Klyuchevskii later very accurately remarked about the election: "We wanted to choose is not capable, and comfortable.

In all parts of the country were sent letters announcing the election of Mikhail Romanov tsar. It is curious that among the signatories no Pozharskoho nor Trubetskoy. By Mikhail Romanov sent a special embassy. Actually, Romanov had yet to find, since accurate information about its seat council did not have, so the embassy was ordered to go to Yaroslavl, or where he is, the sovereign will. "

 Why Mikhail Romanov was elected tsar? Фёдор Никитич Романов (патриарх Филарет) Михаил с матерью сначала находился в родовой вотчине под Костромой, где, согласно легенде, стараниями Ивана Сусанина there was his miraculous deliverance from the Poles, and then in the Monastery of St. Embassy to get to Kostroma in the evening on March 13. The next day, headed the procession it was sent to ask Michael to take the throne. In reality, the request had not himself, and his mother, nun Marfa, which is then a few more years (until the return from Poland Filaret) to make decisions for her son. Survived a report of the Embassy in Moscow about how to convince Michael to take the kingdom, and with some doubts, he took the decision.

March 14, 1613 Russia will have a legally elected king. Subsequent events have shown that the choice was not the worst. And even a good thing for many years, Michael was only a nominal ruler, but the real power was in the hands of people with great experience in life - first his mother, then father, Patriarch Filaret, on his return from captivity, was officially proclaimed co-ruler of the king.