Why Semyon Chelyuskina can rightfully be called the pride of Russia?
At midnight, from 8 to 9 May 1742 Russian Polar explorer Semyon Cheluskin and his party reached the northernmost tip of Eurasia - the Cape, later named Cape Chelyuskin.
A man who can be proud of Russia, the information in the archives, unfortunately, remained very small. Even the date of birth Semyon uncertain. Wikipedia points out alleged "about 1707". It is known that he was born in the village of Polyana Mishina Belevsky County (now a village in Arsenyevskaya district of Tula region).
In one of his diaries Semyon mentions that his father was an attorney, but soon died, and he was brought up in a family distant relatives. In 1714, Simon has withstood rigorous qualifying competition among the children of the nobility (as they used to be called - "minor"), was adopted in the Moscow School of Mathematical Sciences and navigation.
Semyon Chelyuskin It was a very prestigious school, founded by Peter the Great. From the walls came a lot of beautiful marine officers who were decoration Russian Navy . And during the summer vacation students, among whom was Simon Chelyuskin done an internship at the courts of the Baltic Fleet. After graduating from the navigation school with excellent grades, Chelyuskin was seconded to continue his service to the Baltic Fleet. Starting service apprentice mate, a few years he has taught skill mate 11,111,117. midshipmen.
In the Central State Archive of the Navy of the USSR kept the double-log sloop. For seven years, every day, following the rule "that we see, then we write and what we do not see that we do not write, did meager official record navigator Semyon Chelyuskin.
August 1736. For the first time people saw a black sea mountains east of Taimyr. From the records of those days: "We came up the great island. We walked around those islands with 30 miles. And how the fog began podymattsa, they saw ahead of him and on both sides of the ice. A bank is a long time, and not see it. Chill are great, that a person can hardly endure.
Heavy was sick Captain Basil Pronchishchev. Unheated cabin. On watch is no longer the first day was the navigator Cheluskin - other officers simply did not exist. He led the ship, doing hourly log entry, not forgetting about 11,111,114. surveying [/url] . Soon the ice completely blocked the path. Breaking the Ice poles and oars, working around the clock, the team made desperate attempts to escape from captivity. "Calm, the sky is overcast and gloomy, frost great.
They escaped, but on Aug. 29, 1736 was not with them Captain Pronchishchev. His young wife, Tatyana, to join him in the expedition, survived him only two weeks. Learning of the death of his friend, the captain of the court yacht Dekron "Chariton Laptev asked to send it to" Yakutsk "captain to continue the case Pronchishchev. In the meantime, take command of a detachment Semen Chelyuskin.
Unable to contact the leader of the expedition V. Bering, in February 1738 Chelyuskin wrote a report to the Admiralty Board of the need to continue the expedition: "Begun should happen. The commander of the double-boat "Yakutsk" and leader of the detachment claim Khariton Laptev. In anticipation of the arrival Laptev, Cheluskin preparing equipment, manufactures repair the double-sloop.
In 1739, Laptev and Cheluskin trying to get done "Yakutsk" way, but they can not. Next summer they go to the final assault. Dubiel-sloop surround the ice in the holes, laid down with sacks of food, water gushes. On the ice, as on a raft, to get people to the shore. August 15 the team left the wreck, and on 15 October - two months - people came to the cabin.
On the ship's board decided to terminate the study and wait for further instructions. But Semyon Ivanovich, in spite of that, keep shooting the coast of Taimyr, traveling by land. In 1741 and 1742 respectively, he headed two sled hike, are unmatched by the length of routes and the volume of work done.
May 9, 1742 Simon Cheluskin made a record that has become historical: "We arrived to the Cape. Here, put a lighthouse - one log, which was carrying with him. 'This stone promontory, the average height, about thereof ice smooth and no ridges. Cheluskin calls it the North East Cape. One hundred years later, in 1843, the Cape will be renamed to Cape Chelyuskin .
Then the path of the detachment lay at the mouth of the Lower Taimyr. In mid-May 1742 on the map was put on the whole northern coast of Taimyr. Assignment of the Admiralty Board to Lena-Yenisei detachment was successfully completed. Only on the Taimyr Peninsula Semyon Chelyuskin and his party drove and walked, carrying inventory, more than 7 thousand km. It was no exaggeration, more civil and scientific achievement.
It was opened on the Cape, later named in honor of Chelyuskina his name. However, neither the Chelyuskin, nor his contemporaries had given the opening of any significance. Cheluskin given the rank of midshipman. For a time he commanded the court yacht, then again served in the Baltic Fleet. For services to health Semyon went to captain the third grade and lived with his wife in the village, where he died in November 1764. His place of burial, as indicated in the sources, remains unknown.