As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1



As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1 In May 1703, Peter I laid on a small island in the Neva delta, which the Finns called Yanissaari, and Russian - Hare, strength, gave rise to the new capital of Russia, named after the patron saint of the king of the city of St. Peter (St. Petersburg).

All summer on the island of workmen and soldiers drained the swamp, pile, piled tree, set building and home. Work went on in incredibly difficult circumstances, hurry, because next was terrible neighbor - Sweden. Not all kept hard labor and life of starvation. At first the dead were buried where the need, and then appeared a small cemetery. Soon put a wooden church in the name of the apostles Peter and Paul. Perhaps, in this period more often than other services it went funeral.

Despite all the difficulties, the city was built. Following the terrible command of the young king, it stretched from Moscow boyars and gentry with their families. Established the first street, were erected stone houses. After the victory at Poltava, when the danger from the north almost passed, it became rapidly grow. Fortress same, so named because it located in the cathedral, on Hare Island is preserved, becoming an outpost of St. Petersburg by the Neva and the place of conclusion of state criminals.

 As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1 View of St. Peter and Paul Cathedral. With engraving E. Vinogradov 1753 is difficult to say, when Peter had the idea to put in place of the aging wooden churches from the stone cathedral, giving it a special role in the life of the imperial family. In May 1712 Peter, surrounded by his companions, laid on the site of the demolished wooden church foundation stone of the new cathedral. By building the king went up substantially, ordered from the Swiss architect Domenico Trezzini, provided him with the best masters, and did not skimp.

Major construction works were completed in 8 years. At the cathedral set clock chimes, bought for huge sums of money (about 45 thousand) in the Netherlands. And in 1723 the cathedral soared up the famous golden spire, which became the highest architectural landmark (122.5 meters). The interior of the cathedral and the creation of the iconostasis was continued after the death of Peter, culminating in 1733, when the cathedral was consecrated.

 As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1 Tsar's place in the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral struck contemporaries size and richness of interior decoration. Decorated marble pylons, topped with capitals of gilt cherubs, divide the church into three naves, which cover the groin. They are decorated with painted ceilings painted with figures of angels. The vaults are placed 18 large paintings on the themes of the New Testament. One of the pylons decorated royal place, which at the time of worship occupied by the monarch.

Curiously, on the order of Peter in the cathedral were exhibited in battle trophy made banners and standards. This tradition has been preserved after death of Peter I. By the way, the admiral's flag with Turkish ship hijacked in Chesmenskaya battle, Catherine II in 1772 and solemnly laid on the tomb of the creator of the Russian navy. Over time, the cathedral has accumulated a significant number of banners, and in 1855 by architect Montferrand created a special gold-colored wooden tables, where the captured flags were placed on the walls and columns of the cathedral.

The first time the cathedral was the cathedral, but has clearly shaped its main purpose - to be the burial place of the imperial family. The first funerals were held in the summer of 1708 in the old wooden church, when it gained one and a half rest Catherine, daughter of Peter I. This tomb has been preserved, and in 1715 were added four more. First, they buried the daughter of Peter and Margaret, Natalia, and then the queen Martha, widow of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich. Then, in a newly built cathedral buried Princess Charlotte Sophia of Christian, wife of Tsarevich Alexei.

 As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1 Tombstone on the grave of Peter I Since that time it became clear that now all the Romanovs are buried only here - in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. Previously, all the great princes of Moscow (from Yuri Daniilovicha), and then the Kings (to Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov) is traditionally buried in Moscow in the Cathedral of the Archangel. However, in post-Petrine times, there was one exception, were buried in the Cathedral of the Archangel, who died in Moscow, the young Emperor Peter II.

In the life of Peter I in the cathedral a few more funerals. In January 1717, was buried a son of Emperor Paul. In the summer of 1718 here buried Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, who was executed by the decision of the emperor for the preparation of a coup.

 As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1 Kind of a sad procession, March 6, 1826 in St. Petersburg. Lithography KP Beggrow March 8, 1725 funeral procession in the cathedral brought the coffin with the deceased Peter the Great. For the emperor's burial in the cathedral was erected a small wooden church, as the still ongoing design works. It placed under the canopy hearse with the coffin of the Emperor and the grave of his daughter Natalie, who died March 4. In the summer of 1727 were added and the coffin of Empress Catherine I, who died on May 6. Land of the body of Peter and Catherine were brought only in May 1731 by order of Empress Anna Ivanovna. According to "Vedomosti" solemn funeral "took place with a particularly organized a ceremony on May 29, Saturday, at eleven o'clock in the morning. It was attended by gentlemen of the generals and the Admiralty, and many collegiate ranks. While placing the coffins in preugotovlennoe purposely to Imperial Cemetery, with the fortress made 51 shot. Coffin Natalia was apparently buried before.

Sam imperial ceremonial funeral was partly designed by Peter I. Naturally, the Orthodox tradition the rank of the body earth was left unchanged, but the secular part of the ceremonies was largely borrowed from European traditions of monarchs burials. Peter refused to hold a monastic vows dying emperor, who performed in Russia for centuries. It was found that the deceased monarch declared mourning for a year, and for the dead, great princes or princess - for three months. During this period, the court ladies had to wear mourning black dresses, and men - mourning armband.

 As Peter and Paul Cathedral was the burial place of the Russian imperial family? Part 1 Hearse and canopy for the funeral of Emperor Alexander III in the Peter and Paul Cathedral. Watercolor Ivanova. 1895 came to the throne the emperor created for the funeral of his predecessor's "mournful commission" of the highest dignitaries of the State, which was painted a detailed ceremonial funeral and after it is approved engaged in their preparation and implementation. In the XVIII century emperors were buried on the fortieth day after death. This period violated only at the funeral of Catherine I. In the XIX century, this ceased to comply with the order of the funeral, as the tradition to bury the monarchs in the golden crown.

Traditionally, in the cathedral were buried not only the embalmed body in sealed coffins, but all that was removed from the body during embalming. Moreover, heart and entrails were placed in separate vessels and buried the day before the official funeral at the bottom of the grave. Typically, this occurs only in the presence of a "sad Commission" and the clergy.

The first phase of the cathedral as the tomb of the royal family was completed in 1728, when it buried the daughter of Peter I the Great Princess Anna. After that, 100 years buried in the cathedral only the royal representatives of the Romanov family, the Empress Anna Ivanovna to the Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, wife of Paul I. In 1831, Emperor Nicholas I ordered to be buried in the cathedral of his older brother, Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich. Since then, the cathedral once again began to bury a close relative of the emperor.

Naturally, the purpose of Peter and Paul Cathedral was reflected in his work. It occurred not all mysteries: never performed the baptism and wedding. Burial service is only members of the imperial family, sometimes making an exception for the commandant of the fortress, which was buried in a small cemetery next to the cathedral.

 
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