Who was the first Russian historian and why he had a reputation as a "maverick"?



Who was the first Russian historian and why he had a reputation as a "maverick"? History ... For millennia, the memory of the past handed down from generation to generation through oral tradition, epics, songs. With the advent of writing knowledge of the past were recorded.

The great work of domestic chroniclers - "Tale of Bygone Years" - built up over centuries. However, history as a science - it is not just a story about some events, facts. The science of history is, above all, in thinking about the past, the ability to understand and explain the course of historical development.

History in Russia appeared in the mid XVIII century. The country has entered a new phase in its development: capitalist relations began to take shape. In the improvement of national identity. Before the young Russian people stood three main questions: Where are we? Who are we? Where are we going?

The answer to these questions come from Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev - the first Russian historian . But he was not only a historian. Tatishchev - is an outstanding thinker and a large domestic statesman.

He was born in 1686 into a poor aristocratic family. In seven years, little Vasily stolnik began serving at the court of Tsar Ivan, co-ruler while still young Peter I. In junior 18 years Basil has been enlisted in the regiment of dragoons. In 1709 with the rank of lieutenant, he participated in the Battle of Poltava. Then, by the will of fate Tatishchev performed various tasks: for the king inspected the artillery, was in the diplomatic service, to train mining, led the factories in the Urals.

After the death of Peter I (1725) Tatishchev, one of the most brilliant "chicks Peter's nest", most of his life, or "honorable", but all the same link, or in disgrace and exile of the present. And although he reached "ranks considerable" (a secret adviser on military scale - lieutenant-general), His fate was tragic all the same color .

Take, for example, the following fact: the original scientist, author of more than one hundred scientific papers on various topics, Tatishchev not seen any of his works published in Russia. And a talented, walking ahead of its time, a statesman, he was not able to end to put into a single idea in the field of public administration.

Yet Basil Nikitich Tatishchev had done to Russia so much that so far his contribution is not appreciated fully. More than 200 years after his death (and he died in 1750 in exile), we continue to discover more and more of its services to Russia. The breadth of interests of the Russian thinker, unusual even for the encyclopedic XVIII century., Amazes researchers of his work: he was a historian, philosopher, economist, geographer, jurist, linguist, archaeologist, paleontologist, educator, politician journalist, mathematician, mining engineer and gunner.

And this is not a complete list! It should add some more information: Head of the Ural factories, governor of Astrakhan, Orenburg and the commander of the Kalmyk expeditions, founder of Yekaterinburg and Perm, one of the founders of the Chelyabinsk and Orenburg ... And for 30 years - from 1719 to 1750 - Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev wrote, perhaps, the main book of his life - "History of Russia".

The significance of his historical works are well-known Russian historian said the XIX century. Solovyov: "The merit Tatishcheva that he began work as it should begin: collected materials, subjected to criticism, has reduced chronicle the news, notes, supplied them with geographic, ethnographic, and chronological, pointed to the many important issues that were the subjects for the later studies , brought the news of ancient and modern writers of the ancient state of the country, received after the name of Russia, - in short, pointed the way and means of their compatriots engaged in Russian history. "

Soviet historian, academician MN Tikhomirov, noting "historical insight" Tatishchev, wrote that his findings "in some cases, far ahead of its time and even historians of the XIX century building.".

However, recognizing the great contribution Tatishchev before domestic historical science, it should be remembered that Tatishchev not simply a historian, and above all original, original Russian thinker, who created his philosophical and historical picture of the world. And that's why he was displeased many of the ruling circles of the Russian Empire. His detractors - Menshikov, A. Osterman, all-powerful in the 30-ies. XVIII century. E. G. Biron, who called Tatishcheva one of the main "enemies of the Germans."

Why is this happening? What was dangerous in the ideas expressed by VNTatischev? The German historian Schlozer, who worked for a while in Russia, wrote that Tatishchev "freestyle their way of thinking has incurred the disapproval of not only spiritually, but what is worse, the political free-thinking." This, I think, is the answer to these questions.

"The political free-thinking ..." No, Schletzer knowingly used the words: even after death Tatishcheva reputation as a "maverick" for him has survived. And what were their reasons. Tatishchev far ahead of his time in understanding the political, social, and economic issues. The first in a historical science, he took up the issue of origin of serfdom and openly expressed doubts about its compliance with the "natural" principles of human existence: "... slavery and anti slavery law Christian.

B. Tatishchev [b] one of the first 11,111,120. proposed the limitation of autocratic power by establishing a constitutional monarchy. He strongly advocated a greater role for private enterprise, for the development and establishment of laws governing relations between state and private capital.

However, the modern historical science difficult to give a clear description of the class Tatishchev. Some scholars see him as an ideologist of the nobility only. Others believe that his claims objectively contributed to bourgeois development. And such a polarity of views is not accidental. The fact that the basis for conflicting assessments of personality and activities Tatishcheva is ... in the Tatishchev, in his writings and deeds.

Inconsistent views, contradictory world - this is probably one of the main features of this outstanding Russian thinker. What are the reasons for this inconsistency? Researchers give different explanations. Someone sees in his work protecting the interests of the refined of the ruling class - the nobility. A few people did not pay attention to different views of the Tatishcheva on some issues, stressing only some one side of his views.

But the explanation so far seen one. Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev [b] able to express what was not yet a reality 11,111,120. , A reality for the majority of the population, and more so for the ruling class - is steadily ongoing process of formation of the Russian nation. Tatishchev - the first national thinker and the first Russian historian. He was able to move away from the narrow class ratings history and modernity. Tatishchev looked at both from the standpoint of national interests, in which the expressed needs of different social strata.

In the character of Basil Nikitich in his views quite intricately mixed interests of various social forces of Russia in the first half of the XVIII century: the time of Peter the nominees and representatives of the old aristocratic families, critically evaluate the Petrine reforms.

 
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