Whose face is concealed in the Iron Mask?



Whose face is concealed in the Iron Mask? If someone did not read the story M. Panolya of the Iron Mask, the very entertaining film with Jean Marais in the title role in his time looked most zriteley.Chto is this story?

On a gray overcast day on Sept. 19, 1698 before the drawbridge Bastille stopped cavalry unit. Captain Saint-Mard called custody, filed a warrant, and two dozen musketeers surrounding sedan with mourning curtains, and went into the prison courtyard.

The prisoner, delivered in a dark sedan chair, was unusual. It seemed dumb. His face is tightly covered mask, made of iron and trimmed with black velvet. According to the writ, it concluded one of the most remote casemates de la Bastille.

On Man in the Iron Mask, the prison authorities knew only that he arrived from the island of St. Marguerite, and before that held in the fortress Pinerol, in south-eastern border of France. With him were forbidden to talk. In the silence he had lived for five long years in his solitary confinement, and died November 19, 1703. He was buried in the prison cemetery, St. Paul named Marciano. Personal belongings of the deceased was burned. In his cell, scratched walls and floors are dismantled, so as not to remain any inscriptions or immured notes. Then he forgot about it.

Eighty-six years later the people of Paris stormed the Bastille. The French Revolution made possible the publication of archives terrible fortress-prison. Opened up the age-old mystery, clarify the fate of many victims of royal despotism. But the mystery remained unsolved Iron Mask. All sheets of prison books which belonged to the prisoner, were torn out and destroyed in advance.

Historians and writers have built a variety of hypotheses about the identity of the mysterious mute. Some saw him as the Count of Vermandois, son of Louis XIV of La Valliere, imprison a slap in the face of this dauphin, others believed that it was the intendant Fouquet, sentenced to perpetual imprisonment for embezzlement. Named and other persons: the Duke of Beaufort, the leader of the Fronde, who disappeared in 1669, the Duke of Monmouth, a nephew of James II, rescued from imprisonment penalty; Armoises nobleman, who headed a conspiracy against Louis XIV.

Especially stable versions were, who thought the Iron Mask half-brother "Sun King". On one of them, an unknown son of Anne of Austria from her valet, on the other - from the Duke of Buckingham, on the third - from Cardinal Mazarin. We also assume that the Bastille prisoner could be the brother of Louis XIV, his twin, who was isolated, fearing civil wars in the country. This option, which seemed especially romantic, entered the literature.

In the period of the empire came the new version, backed by court historians of Napoleon I. According to her, Louis XIV was the illegitimate child, but his father, Louis XIII, it is ordained that the crown, removing the right of inheritance of his legitimate son. This, the last true dauphin, was brought up away from the yard, and when he grew up and grew its similarity to the future king, was doomed to oblivion.

First he was sent to the island of St. Marguerite. There he joined a secret relationship with the daughter of the jailer, by whom he had a son. Then the unhappy father, clad in an iron mask, and was transferred to the Bastille, and infant son moved to Corsica, giving him with the name of Buonaparte, that is "good side", "from good parents." And the boy was supposedly the ancestor of Napoleon, ensuring that it is quite "legitimate" origin.

No need to list other hypotheses that have arisen at different times in relation to different circumstances. All of them, as just mentioned, have one common drawback: they are not backed by facts, and often directly contradict them.

 And only one version, first proposed in 1795, and then has found some evidence, can claim a certain share of probability. This version is very far from the above romantic fictions. The author started from two immutable truths: the name of a fortress, which was first signed the unknown, and the name under which he was buried.

We remember this name: Marciano. Of course, his real name. However, it is very similar to another name, belonged to a real historical figure - Mattioli. The man with the name of Mattioli was well-known contemporaries. No less famous was his mysterious disappearance.

Count Girolamo Mattioli was born in Bologna in 1640. His diplomatic career, he made at the court of the Duke of Mantua. Quickly climbing the stairs of the job ladder, and is nominated for prime minister, Count Mattioli was in the midst of a major political game, which the Great Powers conducted in a rich but fragmented Italy.

With his assistance, was signed a secret treaty between France and Mantua. The contract was very favorable to the French king, who, if implemented, was able to attach to his possessions important territory. For this transaction Louis XIV paid Mattioli mother lode - 100 thousand crowns. But Mantua diplomat wanted to get even more mystery and sold to interested Governments of Savoy, Spain and Austria. Sting of the French government collapsed.

 Angered by Louis XIV decided to punish corrupt politicians. He was lured to the border area and thrown into the fortress Pinerol. Then he disappeared forever. The French king renounced his involvement in this matter. For all requests the Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded that he knew nothing about Mattioli. We decided that he was killed.

 Meanwhile, Louis XIV chose the unfortunate diplomat such vengeance, which seemed to him more terrible than the death penalty. Count Girolamo was condemned to death during his life: he had to lose the name, to lose face in the darkness of eternal prison day and night to think about the terrible consequences of his betrayal.

He was transferred to the island of St. Marguerite, then in the Bastille. The features of his face forever concealed in the Iron Mask. The story of Mattioli confirmed historical data: its disappearance coincides with the appearance of an unknown in the fortress Pinerol.

 
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