Why is "Bartholomew's Night" has become synonymous with mass murder of defenseless people?



Why is "Bartholomew's Night" has become synonymous with mass murder of defenseless people? The expression "Bartholomew's Night" has long been included in the languages of many nations, meaning cruel assassination of defenseless people who are unable to resist. His appearance was preceded by real events in France, when on the night of August 24, 1572 (the day of St. Bartholomew), Catholics was arranged brutal massacre of the Huguenots.

In the XVI century in Europe, religious wars broke out, associated with violent resistance to Roman Catholicism departure from the religious teachings of an increasing number of people in different countries. Movement gained strength "of the Reformation, which led to the emergence of new religious teachings, based on Christianity, but reject many of the canons of the Catholic religion. The largest Protestant movement in this period were 1,111,112. Lutheranism [/url] , Calvinism, Anglicanism, and others.

The differences between the Protestant movement were minor. Rejecting Catholicism, Protestants have eliminated many of the mysteries, agreeing to leave only the baptism and the Eucharist (communion). They have rejected the doctrine of grace, the veneration of saints, relics and images. Were lifted prayers for the dead, and houses of worship are exempt from the altars, images, statues, bells and lost sumptuous luxury. The service has been simplified and reduced to preaching, praying, singing psalms and hymns in their native language congregation. The Bible was proclaimed the sole source of doctrine and translated into national languages. In Protestantism, there was no monks and there was no vow of celibacy. And most importantly, with what they could not accept the Vatican rejected the authority of Pope and introduced the principle of universal priesthood, when the priest to carry out the duties of any member of the community.

Naturally, the new religious movement met fierce resistance, result in a bloody confrontation and war. Arena of fierce confrontation between Catholics and Protestants was France, where the new teaching spread in the form of Calvinism. French Catholics were contemptuously called the followers of the teachings of Calvin Huguenots, but soon the name caught on among themselves Protestants.

In France, religious stratification caused several wars. By the way, the siege Larochelle, which was attended by the heroes of the novel "The Three Musketeers", held during one of the wars with the Huguenots.

In 1570 the third Huguenot War ended in Saint-Germain world, who returned Calvinists many rights. They received a partial freedom of religion, they remained a number of fortresses, and their leader, Admiral Coligny came to the royal council. Soon Coligny made location of the young King Charles IX and became one of his closest advisers. To strengthen the fragile peace Marguerite de Valois decided to marry for Henry of Navarre, one of the leaders of the Huguenots.

Fierce opponents Coligny remained king's mother Catherine de Medici, which frankly frightened him a great influence on the monarch, and attempts to drag France into war with Catholic Spain. The Queen Mother and her advisers were looking for any excuse to destroy the leaders of the Huguenots, and return the country to the bosom of the Catholic Church.

On the eve of the wedding of Henry and Margaret, arrived in Paris a large number of high Huguenots and the mass of the nobility. The capital, which are dominated by Catholics, met with the emergence of the Huguenots extremely unfriendly. These attitudes towards the Huguenots skillfully stimulated the Catholic clergy. In the capital there were rumors circulating about Huguenot conspiracy to overthrow the king and the introduction of a new religion.

Luxurious wedding, held August 18, 1572, only reinforced the hostility of the townspeople to the Huguenots, whom they saw in the royal suite. Events are developing rapidly. At the Admiral Coligny on August 22, was assassinated, was organized by Duke Henry of Guise, who enjoyed popularity among the Parisians as the defender of the faith. The wounded Admiral condolence visit of the king and Catherine de Medici. But Huguenot demanded to know from the punishment of the King of Giza. Among the Huguenots rumors about the inevitability of another war. Calvinists began to leave Paris.

 Why is "Bartholomew's Night" has become synonymous with mass murder of defenseless people? KF Gong. A scene from the Saint Bartholomew's current situation skillfully took advantage of Catherine de 'Medici, to convince the king of the need to physically eliminate the leaders of the Huguenots, for the sake of preventing a civil war. Paris municipality on August 23 issued an order to close the gates and prepare for the actions of local police.

On the night of August 24 conspirators, killing the guard, broke to Colin and pierced his sword. In urban churches to sound the alarm, calling the people to the massacre of the Huguenots. Engage in an open massacre, the Huguenots were killed even in the royal palace. Only from the suburb of Saint-Germain-des-Prs of the Huguenots escaped to fight and flee. Coordinated the destruction of the Huguenots began and in other French cities. In the capital, the King graciously saved the life of Henry of Navarre and his cousin Henry of Conde, but required them to move to Catholicism.

 Why is "Bartholomew's Night" has become synonymous with mass murder of defenseless people? St. Bartholomew. Ancient engravings Massacre at Paris lasted several days. House Protestants were pre-marked in chalk. They burst from the blood of Catholics infuriated and killed indiscriminately. Destroy not only the French Huguenots, cut out all those who had a different from the Catholic faith. Catholic priests organized "informational support" murder. Questions the rationale for such brutality to persuade or threatened to separate from the church, right on the streets covered with blood killers loose in the churches were in the service of gratitude for ridding the city of the Huguenots.

Aug. 26 Charles IX officially admitted that the destruction of the Calvinists held at his command, as he sought to break new Huguenot conspiracy and punish the rebels.

It is believed that in these days in Paris, died from 2,5 to 3 of thousands of Huguenots, and across the country about 10 thousand. Events in France were welcomed by the Catholic world. Pope Gregory XIII not only supported the massacre, but even arranged for joy at the Vatican fireworks and ordered to produce a commemorative medal. In fairness, we note that after 425 years after the Saint Bartholomew Pope John Paul II condemned the massacre of the Huguenots.

It is worth noting that at the time of such cruel deeds were not rare. For six years before St. Bartholomew similarly received and Protestants, Catholics staged destruction of the city of Nimes in the Day of St. Michael, but his scope was not commensurate with what happened in Paris.

St. Bartholomew has not solved the problem, and caused the continuation and bitterness Huguenot wars in France, during which government forces have repeatedly suffered defeat. The king was forced to make further concessions to the Protestants.

 
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