Why Peter I forbade build stone houses in Russia, besides the capital?



Why Peter I forbade build stone houses in Russia, besides the capital? October 20, 1714 Tsar Peter I issued a decree banning the stone building across Russia and the erection of a new capital exclusively stone "model homes". Now the construction of stone houses anywhere except St. Petersburg, very strictly punished. One stroke of a pen the king left without a job thousands of masons throughout Russia.

The calculation was this: because of their masonry work has a way of making money and feeding the family, they will be forced to go in search of a better life "on the banks of the Neva, where he will continue doing things you love. Thus, it will allow the new Russian capital as quickly as possible to become flush with the capitals of other European cities.

  Drawing "brick"

In October 1714 edition of the decree was the last straw of patience Peter I. The city is known, began to build 11 years earlier, and the first quarter of a century, he looked like a huge construction site at which to find an experienced mason was not so easy. And after the decree the king for some time waited for the St. Petersburg will arrive bricklayers, but, by and large, did not wait for him, so he ordered that the people who are able to build stone structures, was taken to North Palmyra forced ...

I must say that St. Petersburg was built in strict accordance with the then rules of fire safety. Buildings in urban areas were allowed to build "one lived, one line of separation between them on the new ordinance amounted to no less than 13 m.

Of course, brick is not enough, brick factories throughout Russia could be on the fingers, but the most cunning people quickly found a way to deceive the king. They built an ordinary wooden house, sculptured on the walls of a thin layer of clay, who painted "brick". Fast travel was impossible to distinguish between a painted house of the capital. But here was a stick about two ends: if drawn by "brick" came out very nicely and unnatural, the King could not stop and become interested in where got such incredible "brick". And then the "artist" was not used to demolish the head ...

 Why Peter I forbade build stone houses in Russia, besides the capital? Peter and Paul Fortress marked the beginning of St. Petersburg 11,111,116. Unemployment surged in the capital of 11,111,117.

The construction of St. Petersburg was not a pleasant pastime. How then, after a half century, writes in his work, Nikolai Nekrasov (True, over the construction of the railway), "Work it, Vanya, was very heavy, no one on the shoulder .... The age of a bricklayer in the piercing wind was very Neva last long, no warm clothes are not saved - just try and stand for 14-16 hours at a time when sneaking up to the liver. But there was no alternative: build it right! By the way, for seven years before the appearance of today's decree came out even more austere: the dissemination of punishment for running away from St. Petersburg to the parents, wives and children escaped. So, by themselves, and not run away, if you believe in God and the family in a Christian attitude ...

 Why Peter I forbade build stone houses in Russia, besides the capital? Peter and Paul Fortress - the view from above ... But in general, in those days, fires were almost unbridled natural elements. Burnt out whole cities. That is why the king has ordered that the homeowners should be used as material for roof shingles just as in Europe. On the one hand it was wonderful - the tiled roofs are not contributing to the spread of fire. Random sparks were extinguished, and the embers can easily stray hooks. But on the other - shingles in those days was very poor quality: firstly, the roof sags under the weight of snow, and secondly, tiles gained a lot of moisture underneath the rafters and began to rot. And, thirdly, cost a lot of money, which settled in pockets, as if just said, foreign manufacturers ...

  The prototype frame construction

But the stone houses were built much more slowly than wood. And Peter I would not have been Peter I, if it had not found a way out of this situation. He forbade the building in the capital of wooden houses, and that the pace of construction continued to remain high, ordered to build "cottage". Initially, the builders constructed a wooden frame, and then they clay, which then were painted "brick" is already on record. Incidentally, the current frame construction is based on the same method, however, construction materials for three centuries have changed ...

Peter I ordered to build several cottages near the Peter and Paul fortress, and called them "exemplary". That is, any rich person could build his house on the project, which speeds up the process of building the hut. Although there was a negative - out of clay can not build a multistory building, and the honorable lords still wanted their homes differed from the others. Then the king allowed them to decorate the various towers towers ...

  We would today Peter I. ..

But most importantly, the emperor managed to avoid the chaos and spontaneity in the construction, which can not be said about the current situation, where new buildings there are sometimes very spontaneous. Peter I adopted the three pillars in the building policy: a) the State has assumed the leadership of the draining soil and laying roads and embankments, and b) it also took strong points the city plan, of which the chief was the center of St. Petersburg, c) private developers committed build houses not inside the site and on the "red line" of the street.

The emperor died too early, having seen only the "main outline" of one of the most beautiful Russian cities. His edict was lifted in 1741, partly due to the fact that by that time a fair amount of new brick plants, and there were many masons (fortunately, not only "free"). Moreover, since the death of Peter I had not abated rumors that the capital is about to return to Moscow, and therefore should result in a divine form and the second capital.

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