What price paid writers for independence? Pasternak

What price paid writers for independence? Pasternak October 27, 1958, exactly half a century ago, took memorable meeting of the Union of Soviet Writers, where the main agenda was the question on the actions of members of JV USSR Boris Pasternak, inconsistent with the title of a Soviet writer. The reason for the "cool" sorting "were two events: the award of the aforesaid writer, Nobel Prize (bypassing the CC CPSU) and the publication abroad of the novel" Doctor Zhivago ".

The meeting was scheduled for noon. But my friends advised against himself BL come to the meeting, fearing that his heart would not stand this orgy. The fact is that shortly before that Pasternak complained of heart, and such a shake-up could lead to a tragic outcome. After all, in 1952 he had a heart attack ...

  Letter instead of the presence of

Pasternak yet arrived in Moscow, but agreeing with the arguments of friends on the board meeting did not go. Instead, he sat down to write a letter. It tells Irina I. Emelyanov, to which he had arrived that morning, Boris Leonidovich sat in her little room for drafting a letter to the board, and they with her mother and friends sat down to drink coffee.

 What price paid writers for independence? Pasternak Boris Pasternak's contemporaries considered great esthete
 Find the complete text of the letter Pasternak did not (much later, friends tried to restore the memory of a few phrases from it), but the overall structure of writing and looked like this. It begins with the fact that at first he wanted to go, but after learning that prepare some demonstrations, rallies with demagogic speeches, he changed his mind. Then - the history of printing of the novel - the novel has been given to the Soviet authorities and transferred abroad at a time when such a publication seemed quite possible - was a novel Dudintsev, anthology "Literary Moscow". The letter ended: "I do not expect you to justice. You can shoot me, send it, do whatever you want. I forgive you in advance. But do not hurry. It will not make you any happiness or glory. And remember, all the same after a while you will have to rehabilitate me. In your practice, this is not the first time. "

A few words about the background of the issue. The first copies of "Doctor Zhivago" was printed in Milan, November 23, 1957. A month later, on December 16, Pasternak wrote about Helen Blagininoy: "They say the novel came out in Italian, coming soon in English, then Swedish, Norwegian, French and German, all within a year. I do not know, did you know that about a year ago Goslitizdat signed a contract with me for the publication of the book, and if it actually released in an abridged and censored form, half of the discomfort and awkwardness would not exist ... "

  A meeting place of the other 11,111,125.

Immediately after the release of the novel in Italian Culture Department of the Central Committee decided to arrange a meeting with foreign journalists Pasternak. It was supposed to bring Pasternak's Society for Cultural Relations, that he expressed his protest against the publication of "unfinished" product. But Pasternak refused to participate in such a spectacle. In the course were set promises to pay the fees of the detainees, print publications were shut down. Reluctantly, Pasternak agreed to meet with Western journalists.

It took place not in the Society of Cultural Relations, as planned in the Central Committee, and the writer's dacha in Peredelkino, 17 December 1957. "I regret that my novel was not published here. But assumed that he was somewhat deviated from the official line of Soviet literature. My book has been criticized, but its no one even read it. To do this, use only a few pages of excerpts, some replicas of some of the characters and made this erroneous conclusions "- so said about the novel BL western journalists.

In response, authorities have done everything possible to single novel was released in France and England. Thus, Alexei Surkov was sent to Paris, that he was negotiating with publishers, and Fyodor Panferov went to England. He succeeded more Surkov - met with the sisters of Pasternak and began to intimidate them by saying that, if the novel will be released in England, Pasternak will be a big problem in the USSR. But the visit of senior writers' concern for the fate of other "have not had any effect - neither the French nor the British did not want to abandon the publication already acclaimed novel. Especially since the fall of 1957 after the Italian release of "Doctor Zhivago" some Western writers asked to nominate Pasternak the Nobel Prize.

 [b] A successful attempt with eight times 11,111,125.

 What price paid writers for independence? Pasternak And here he is younger and posimpatichnee
 In total, he put forward eight times (from 1946 to 1950 - every year), and only with the fate of the last attempt of the writer was resolved favorably. But how to react to the awarding of the Nobel Prize in the Soviet Union? Two days before the meeting, 25 October, in the Literary Gazette published an article "provocations of international reaction", in which its author has not stinted on the loud epithets. That's just one excerpt: "Pasternak received" thirty pieces of silver ", which used the Nobel Prize. He was awarded for having agreed to serve as bait on the hook rusty Soviet propaganda ... Inglorious end to waiting for the resurrected Judas, Dr. Zhivago, and its author, the lot which will be the people's contempt.

The very same wording of the Nobel Foundation was by no means anti-Soviet: "For significant achievement in contemporary lyrical poetry, as well as the continuation of the traditions of the great Russian epic".

At least the island was and article in the newspaper Pravda, whose written word was much more strongly. "The buzz around the reactionary propaganda literary weed" - one name is worth something!

Something like this had to go through me, in the early 90's, when in the regional newspaper of the Baltic Military District began to publish my detective novel. No, the insurgents Judas me, of course, not called names, but the words of the cultural department of the newspaper, I remember all my life, and now remember with a smile: "You have the newspaper printed the story only real Communists." What I could not resist and said: "That's when the real Communists write something worthwhile, worthy of the court of readers, then we'll talk" ...

 [b] The game, instigated by enemies ...

But back to the meeting. It was the apotheosis of unbridled criticism. Here are short excerpts from speeches. Sergei Smirnov, chairman of the meeting: " All the while Boris Pasternak led foul play, started by the enemies. He waited out the novel abroad. Finally novel came out overseas. You know, what a godsend for the foreign reaction to our enemies. Around this novel began a frantic pandemonium. Pasternak began to declare the most talented writers and poets, and before that time, his poems, in fact, did not know ... The first time was not yet the speech of the Nobel Prize, has not yet followed pressure from overseas only after this issue of the Nobel Prize Pasternak got to turn. The prize was awarded to him, and after that to the Nobel Committee, as we know from foreign sources, was sent the following telegram Pasternak (to the Swedish Academy): "eternally grateful. Touched. Surprised. Confused. Pasternak. (The noise in the hall, movement. Exclamation: Shame!)

I recall that the Norwegian people executed writer Knut Hamsun, who sided with the Germans during the German occupation, when the fence cordoned his house flew his works! People showed him that he would not keep his hands of his book.

I think that is worthy of such a civil penalty, and Boris Pasternak, and it seems that we should look to the government to deprive Pasternak Soviet citizenship! "

Leo Oshanin: "We need to calmly and soberly understand what happened. In the overall, a very severe cold war being waged now against us - it has long prepared and very finely calculated blow. Pasternak was always under the supervision of our neighbors, Pasternak was always surrounded by lots of foreigners, and what he thought and did Pasternak, was very well known abroad. Could we, when we heard about it, say it is only accidental, not typical for all his ways that he is different? "

Sergei Antonov: "It is a pity that in 1958 this figure, a parsley to keep the dirty, anti-Soviet work - was chosen as the figure of a man who existed in our Soviet writers' organization. Found figure Pasternak! Those 40 or 50 thousand U.S. dollars, which was Pasternak - this is not premium, it is thanks for complicity in crimes against the peace and tranquility on the planet, against socialism, against communism. That's what it is!

And I think that the Nobel would turn over in his grave if he knew where to now spend his inheritance (in the noise), because he had said in his will that, in particular, he shall allocate the money for works to promote the triumph of peace ... "

There may be no sense to repeat all the speakers. Suffice it to say one thing: only Tvardovsky and Nicholas Gribachev opposed the exclusion Pasternak from the Writers' Union.

 [b] Everybody has their own opinion 11,111,125.

By "Dr. Zhivago" could be treated differently. During the period of revolution and social upheaval, everyone sees the reality and what is happening in different ways, from the height of past years, and social steps, where he is. Not everyone can be Chapaev ...

In Pasternak came under pressure, which eventually forced him to renounce the Prize. In the telegram sent to the Swedish Academy, Pasternak wrote: "In view of the importance that has awarded me a prize in the society to which I belong, I must give it up. I do not wish to insult my voluntary refusal.

The fate of Boris Pasternak withdrew after the meeting quite a bit - some eighteen months. It had been thought that he died from the effects of heart attack, but doctors insist that the cause of death was still lung cancer. But who knows what would have been meted out Nobel laureate, if not persecution, the launch of which was given exactly 27 October 1958 ...