Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1



Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1 In the late 19 th century members of the Imperial Public Library found a document unknown to them. It was called the "Register of Works" free Russian printing ". He was kept in a locked box. At that time led the library Bychkov, who knew the most secret corners of his office. And then suddenly his eyes as he caught completely unreported document.

 But the original text of A. Bychkov was not difficult to establish that it belonged to his predecessor, M. Corfu, famous statesmen, who succeeded to make yourself a wonderful career. One might assume that Nicholas I unofficially put on M. Korff duties "supreme censor", because in the library all the books that were printed in Russia and abroad Russian writers.

It is known that he had long cherished dream of Corfe on the establishment of a Committee of Russia "mute surveillance" under seal. In 1848 he took an active part in it, as the Russian government, frightened by the French Revolution. Later, in one of his letters bibliophile S. Poltoratsky he writes: "Abomination Herzen from his printing press came before us, now they are stored for my seal."

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1 Herzen
The son of an aristocrat and German women Yakovleva L. Haag, the Russian writer Alexander Herzen was raised free-thinker. Even in his youth, he and his friend N. Ogarev vowed eternal service to the people, for it influenced Decembrist uprising (December 14, 1825). Herzen's novels were written, "Who is guilty?", "Thieving Magpie", "Doctor Croups" which were directed against feudalism. Founded in London publishing house, Herzen engaged in publishing magazines "Polar Star" and "bell" for many years, he defended the position of freedom of speech, utopian in the belief that all obstacles to the development of society can eliminate the "top" ...

Creating M. Corfu "registry" has been one of the first attempts to protect readers from the library of publications, "which poses the combustible material" ...

How did censorship? The name of this word has an interesting history. In ancient Rome, the word "qualification» (cengus) mattered census or assessment of property. Officials who were involved in this activity in the V century BC, called censors, elected by their people. Roman citizens to report censors on the age, marital status and money. In addition, the censors "supervised" for mores in society, exercise control over state property. With the establishment of the Roman Empire, the post ceased to exist.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1 Detail of the monument to Ivan Fedorov in MoskveTsenzura as a state institution for a long time its way. Scientists believe that the earliest censorship - the church. It is known that Pope Sixtus IV in the fourteenth century, issued a decree according to which not allowed to publish the book without prior consideration by the spiritual servants. Typically, in the church of the bishops were doing in the secular life this role was played by civilian officials. In the fifteenth century fascination with censorship covers all states of Europe.

At different times in different countries, censorship is imposed, then overturned. But even there, where it has been formally abolished, there are legal proceedings, apply cash taxes, etc. For example, in England Parliament in 1694 decided to abolish censorship service, which, in their view, preventing the Government policy in respect of the authors of books. Censorship is not just abolished in Sweden, Denmark, France (during the revolution).

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1 M. KorfTsenzura evolved with the development of printing. Note that the basis set of letters were known in antiquity. Scientists have found stamps to imprint characters on the island of Crete. The principle of printing typesetting was known at the time of Cicero. Basics like printing used in China. In Europe, the period of printing is closely linked with the name of J. Gutenberg, who created the hand-loom. During the preparation of reprints of the text he used the matrix. It punches forcing itself to deepening the characters, where the printing and poured alloy, getting strereotip for printing.

Experts believe that in 1553, 455 years ago, opened the first printing house in Russia under Ivan the Terrible. A year later it was printed book Epistle - "Apostle". Accuse Fedorov and P. Mstislavets book elegantly decorated ornament. Circulation of "Apostle" was 2,000 copies, but have survived only ten.

Some scientists have concluded that the printer worked until the seventeenth century, she patronized the head of state. Consequently, a great need for censorship was not. However, there is a legend that people burned printing. And Fedorov with his companion was forced to flee to Lithuania. According to other researchers, Fedorov has not been persecuted by the state and church, his visit was connected with a cultural mission.

I must say that until the sixteenth century were printed in Moscow in the main theological books. Still, people willingly bought up manuscripts, which at that time enjoyed great popularity. Attracted by the richness of their performance, and their value was below the printed product.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1 One of the first printed stankovV Europe in those years are beginning to publish news on the leaflets with the help of the printing press. So, people have learned about traveling H. Columbus, about the earthquake in Guatemala, an Italian tournament's top athletes, etc. Leaflets with news of Venice were known as "vouchers» (avizi) or the Gazette »(gazette). The first newspaper appeared in Germany in 1609, in England - in 1621, in France - in 1631 ...

Already in these years typography strictly controlled print production and editorial activity conducted. But the authorities could simply close any of the printers for publishing objectionable.

In 1621 on the orders of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich in Russia in the manuscript, began to leave the newspaper "chimes". The newspaper of a few meters in the main covered events in Europe. It was only in 1703 by decree of Peter I came out the first printed newspaper. It was called "Vedomosti", had a circulation of about 4 thousand copies. In 1729 the newspaper was called "St. Petersburg Gazette.

Over time, the church font was replaced by a civilian. There is a division of censorship in the secular and spiritual. We can say that he edited a newspaper, Peter I, wrote articles and watched her regular output. The newspaper came out 215 years, it was closed only in 1917.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 1 The newspaper Vedomosti, during the reign of Peter I was opened a lot of printers in the country, the management of their activities led Count Musin-Pushkin, approximate king. However, after the death of Peter I all church literature were printed in Moscow, St. Petersburg were only secular printing. During the reign of Elizabeth activity censorship was disordered. The Senate has overseen production of secular literature. But, in fact, the scientists of the Academy of Sciences separatist involved in reviewing papers and books.

Much has changed in this area with the beginning of the era of Catherine II. In 1763 she published a decree regulating the new organization of censorship. In Moscow this activity Ekaterina instructs the university in St. Petersburg - the Academy of Sciences. For his work in the regions are now responsible governors. Job printing of foreign nationals subject to the general orders. If they breach the owner may lose the printing equipment.

He went into the history of the decree of Catherine II, adopted in 1783, 225 years ago, which concerned the activities of "free" printers. This had its advantages. Production of books has become popular. Nevertheless, the decree has increased the function of censorship. Under the new requirements, has exercised tight control over the printing of publications and their content. If violations are identified in the printing, all printed materials subjected to confiscation, violators of the decree and punished in the courts.

 
  • Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2
  • Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3
  • When and why we started to count? From Peter I to 1917
  • When and why we started to count? From 1917 to the present day
  • When and why we started to count? From biblical times to Peter I