Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2

Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2 Censors during the long history of mankind fought with "harmful" ideas. Particularly strong interest in this structure appeared in power since the beginning of 1,111,112. printing and publication of newspapers 1,111,113. . At different times and in different countries that abolished censorship, then injected.

With the adoption of Catherine II's decree on the "free" printing their number in the country increased. In Russia, created the "Academic Society, which was headed by educator of that time N. Novikov. To weaken the influence of N. Novikov in society and to neutralize criticism of its rule, Catherine II entrusted him to do the publication of satirical magazines, but then closes them, seeing in them a threat for themselves. Note that the epigraph to the magazine "Drone" were the words: "They work, but you eat them work" - satire was directed against the feudal landlords.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2 First Reading newspapers
By then the Society has managed to acquire a large publishing house, where there were 20 printing presses. Thanks to the efforts N. Novikova, in the light began to come out magazines were published over 900 books. In the future fate was bleak for N. Novikov. The empress had forbidden him to the book trade, followed by raids and reprisals. In 1792 Novikov was sentenced to 15 years old and imprisoned in the fortress Schliesselburg.

Not accept autocrat and those of its approximate, who dared to disobey her. Thus, learning about protection director of the Academy of Sciences E. Dashkova edition freethinking play Ya Knyazhnin "Vadim of Novgorod," she was extremely dissatisfied. Subsequently, E. Dashkova handed the queen a written resignation and it was accepted.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2 N. Novikov
To limit the import of foreign literature from abroad, Catherine II issued a decree establishing the "censorship ... in every place of three persons: the spiritual, civil and scientific. We can say that from this time began an official "registration" of censorship. Paul I, who succeeded in power for Catherine II, perfected undertaking autocrat. He created a Censorship Board, through the "hands" that took place all the new literature. Only 2 years censors confiscated about 700 books. Among the banned books were works of Schiller, Goethe, Swift ...

Came to the throne after Paul I, Alexander I in 1801, takes a liberal decree. He allowed the importation of foreign literature and the activities of "free" printers, overturned a preliminary review of literature, the work of censors in the ports and cities. Duties of the censors by decree from 1803 carried out by scientists of the University. All conflict issues decided by the Council, which was established at the university.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2 Catherine IIOdnako officials have begun work to establish a censorship statute, wanting to order ambiguities of the new decree. This allowed the censors to consider all printed materials, in addition, attention was drawn to the fact that the product "did not go against the government, the law of God, morality and honor of the citizen." Censorial structure came to the Ministry of Education.

For years, the censors have worked on the rules of the statute, adopted by Alexander I. But even then, many cases are brought and to the Office of the Ministry of Police. Moreover, since 1818 was to "publish material about the government only with the permission of the government."

In the memoirs of a lawyer A. Coney explained in detail about the life of the poet Alexander Pushkin, who had often visited links. Epigrams poet read in all corners of Russia. The king was not opposed to criticizing a poet, but instead arranged for him autocratic supervision. The first link Pushkin was associated with a stay in the Crimea, the Caucasus and Ukraine. So there were works of "Prisoner of the Caucasus", "The Robber Brothers" and "Fountain of Bakhchisarai.

Soon he was sent to Pskov, then the family estate Mikhailovskoye. At this time the poet Vasily Zhukovsky wrote: "The Hour of hours vyaznu in the mud of life." From the "confinement" Pushkin released by Tsar Nicholas I. But two years later, chief of police Bekendorf too will "look after" the poet. It is no coincidence Pushkin said: "complain about the king, but not huntsman ..."

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2 Z. GippiusPri Nicholas I became famous Earl D. Butyrlin, who headed the censorship committee, who worked in a strict "secrecy". He has acted in nearly 15 years. The Committee had made a "hand" to ensure that send to Vyatka writer Saltykov-Shchedrin, known for his satirical works. Were closed, many magazines, critics have virtually ceased to write articles. The play A.Suhovo-Kobylin Death Tarelkin viewers watched only 30 years after its creation in 1900. Censors saw in it a parody on society, bureaucratic power.

In 1863, censorship was replaced by his office, she moved to the Ministry of Internal Affairs ...

 In the early twentieth century, the country began the revolutionary events. When in 1905 Russia was issued imperial manifesto, granting freedom to citizens, government, albeit temporary, began to create rules for the press. Periodical publications of all kinds have been set up in combat, firing an entire "clip" room to criticize the censorship and the main department for printing.

In 1917 the Bolshevik government adopted a decree on the press. But even before its entry into force have been closed down virtually all private publications confiscated printing press. Only 15 times RMC (Provisional Revolutionary Committee) discussed the problem of accounting paper in order to prevent the output of newspapers and magazines without the knowledge of the fact of power.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 2 I. ShmelevPosle exit Decree on Press intellectuals in the country released a piece-by-night "newspaper-protest", which brings together writers Z. Gippius, E. Zamyatin, Vladimir Korolenko, Merezhkovsky, F. Sologub and others. Z. Gippius openly declared from page leaflets that "print canceled all but one of the Bolshevik". To order publications and censorship activities, the Government decided to establish a state publishing house of Russia (State Publishing House).

Already in 1918 the Government adopted a document on "military censorship." It said that it was done in order to "preserve military secrets." During the civil war, "white" press had its own censorship, the "red" - his own. Censorship regained official status after the Bolshevik decree in 1922. When the People's Commissariat Department was established for literature and publishing, which brought together all forms of censorship.

 Even in 1917, V. Lenin at a meeting of the RMC said that "the printing press - our most powerful weapon. He was, according to many of his associates, rather rigid censor. For the first time in the history of Russia, Lenin took the unprecedented act. In Pravda, he announced the expulsion of "active ideologists" (1922). Among them were the rectors of the Moscow and St. Petersburg universities Novikov and L. Karsavin, historians V. Myakotin and A. Kiesewetter, philosophers P. Berdyaev, S. Bulgakov, F. Stepun and others. A total of 160 people ...

By voluntarily emigrated hundreds of Russian people who have not adopted the policy of the Bolsheviks. Scientists distinguish 3 periods of Russian emigration. The first of them - from 1918 until World War II, the second - at the end of the war (1941-1945), the third started immediately after Khrushchev's "thaw". The famous Russian writer I. Shmelev during the civil war in the Crimea have seen firsthand the death and suffering of innocent people who lost a son, an officer of the White Guard army, and left the country, then abroad, published about 20 books.