Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3

Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3 One of the articles Lunacharsky, People's Commissar of Education, wrote: " Censorship ? How awful! But no less horrible Words: prison, a bayonet, a State ... Censorship only feature ordering socialist life ... "

In 1930, the censors finally becomes a party affair. "The famous" Decree on the Press, which gave impetus to the further suppression of all dissent literary figures, was adopted by the Bolsheviks in 1917. Censor (General Administration of literature and publishing) annually expands the list of classified information. People should not have known about the export of grain, about payday bonds, the new organs of government and, especially, on the GPU. By the way, were not disclosed and the data on the availability of drugs in pharmacies.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3 The trial of writers Sinyavsky and Daniel
They met in 1927 with representatives of foreign delegations, Stalin on the question of the press in our country said, laughing: "What kind of freedom of the press in question? ... For the bourgeois class - we have it and never will until there is a dictatorship of the proletariat. When it comes to freedom for the proletariat, then you will not find in another country, such freedom to the press ... "

Later, Stalin "defeated" the editor of Pravda, which in the 20 years headed the main ideologue of the party in the country Bukharin. Here is what recalled his wife, Anna Larina (Bukharin) in the book "Unforgettable": "The last 6 months of life with her husband were such that they can take a century. Unfortunately, he escaped the fate of many ideologues of the time. It was a terrible time. " (N. Bukharin was rehabilitated in 1961.)

It is lead sad, yet eloquent statistics. If the censor in 1925 does not allow the publication of 220 books, then two years later made changes already in the 900 works, most of them "ideological". More than 9,000 publications from abroad were not allowed into the country.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3 B. PasternakSyn leader of the Kadet Party, the writer Vladimir Nabokov, once in 30 years in Berlin, to write these lines in the emigre newspaper "Rudder": "And there is already light years that is indifferent, slow clerk, who will give me ... ticket home. What poet D. Poor responded in Pravda: "... to relax the grip of the Soviet, you - and you ... poetics - will have to wait until my dying day!" Unfortunately, the poor DA predicted the future of Nabokov, who still not seen their homeland. He died in Switzerland in 1977, becoming at that time a world-renowned writer.

A positive role for the writers played Grani, founded in Germany in 1944 by Soviet citizens E. Romanov and S. Maximov. His first number came out at a camp for displaced persons - Menhegofe. On the pages of "Granit" printed Bunin, Boris Zaitsev, Teffi ... In the 60's and 70's of the magazine published the works of writers Vladimir Voinovich, Vasily Grossman, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, V. Shalamov, H Korzhavin, M Bulgakov, A . Platonov, Pasternak and others, which are not printed in the USSR.

Journal of Field opened: "Letters" Granite ". Emigre writers wrote in the Union, many colleagues to send replies. Letters crossed illegally. When the magazine first came into the hands of the poet Bulat Okudzhava, he, in his memoirs, began to learn to think differently. Okudzhava wrote: "It was a struggle, but not with power, but for our souls." Appear the words that almost never say aloud - "samizdat" and "tamizdat. Since 1991, the magazine began to be published in Russia. He was the biggest in our country circulation - 10,000 copies.
 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3 A. SolzhenitsynV in 1946 was accepted by the CPSU (b) on the journals Zvezda and Leningrad ", which stated that in the works Zoshchenko, Anna Akhmatova and Boris Pasternak distorted reality. Zoshchenko called an enemy of the people. His satirical stories scare the party leadership. Not taken and did not understand the power of Akhmatova's poetry. On Pushkin said that he "was able to win time and space." The same can be said about these writers.

Pasternak was subjected to harassment both in political and in writers' circles. His novel "Doctor Zhivago" has not taken any publisher. After publishing it abroad and the award of the Nobel Prize (1958) the writer wanted to expel from the country. But he could not live without Russia, and declined the prize.

The hard way to pass the famous writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn. Immediately after World War II he was sentenced to 8 years for "criticism of Stalin." During the Khrushchev thaw in the magazine "New World" in his novel "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich", speech in which the hero comes to life in the camp. But the established mechanism of censorship has been put into "production". The conflict with the power of Solzhenitsyn inevitable.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3 I. BrodskiyVskore KGB had confiscated his papers and manuscripts of new novels. Works of "The First Circle" and "Cancer Ward" had been printed abroad without the consent of the writer. In 1970 the author was awarded the Nobel Prize. And 3 years later Solzhenitsyn was confiscated by the major work of his life - the manuscript of the novel "The Gulag Archipelago". The writer was charged with treason and deprived of his citizenship. Traveled with his family in the United States. Only in the 90 years he returned to his homeland.

In 1965, a trial writers Sinyavsky and Daniel, allegedly defaming the Soviet system. His works are published abroad. In 1973, coming on freedom, SINYAVSKY left the country. Yu, Daniel lived in Moscow.
Independence and the spirit of freedom of the poet Joseph Brodsky would not let dwell KGB. Several times he was arrested, accused of parasitism, then exiled to 5 years in the Arkhangelsk region. Many writers recall that Anna Akhmatova during the trial said: "What is the biography of our red-headed do!" She was right. Brodsky was released prematurely and emigrated to the U.S. in 1972. Known as a poet, novelist, translator, author of plays. Subsequently, was awarded the Nobel Prize (1987).

The writer Vladimir Aksenov had been expelled from the country in the 80 years. In the late 70's he was one of the organizers of the creation of the magazine "Metropol", in which printed, as a rule, the "unreliable" authors. His works "Burn" and "The Island of Crimea" were banned by the censor. He was expelled from the Writers' Union, and his family left for the United States.

 Why Saltykov-Shchedrin compared censorship with "muzzle the dog"? Part 3 L. Chukovskaya at his dacha in PeredelkinoDolgie years, was in conflict with the ruling regime's daughter Lydia K. Chukovskiy. In all her work was banned (until 1987). Her story "Sofia Petrovna" was first published in 1979 in Paris, we saw the light of it only during the period of perestroika. In the story it is the fate of a woman who is mad, do not put up with the Stalinist oppression. L. Chukovskaya repeatedly been arrested, was excluded from the Writers Union (which was again adopted in 1989).

In his book "The process of exclusion" Lydia Chukovskaya writes: "Those who are forced out of the country Mstislav Rostropovich and Galina Vishnevskaya - whether they like music? Love Does ballet people forced out of the country Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, N. Makarov? Who and when will be judged for the departure of the historian I. Milchuka? Hate literature, those who drove Solzhenitsyn, ousted from the country Brodsky, Nekrasov, Korzhavin, Kornilov, Voinovich. But biologists, physicists, doctors, writers - in prison? And - just people, not talent ... transverse superiors and for this suffering? A - thousands of believers? "