Who liberated Kenya?

Who liberated Kenya? Kenya - one of the most picturesque countries in Africa, in which, in addition to various parks and reserves, are the two highest mountains on the continent - Kilimanjaro and Kenya.

Mount Kenya, according to legend inhabiting this area Kikuyu tribe - a place of residence of the god of the tribe Ngai. Traditionally, all Kikuyu tribe houses are built facing the mountain. They call it Kiriyanga, or "place of light".

Of this tribe, by the way, came a national hero of Kenya, who later became the first president of this country. His nickname «Burning Spear» uses a very well-known reggae band from Jamaica.

Kenya took over many times since 1498, when this remarkable place was first colonized by the Portuguese. Since 1740 most of the country was ruled by the Sultanate of Zanzibar, then in 1880 was installed a German protectorate over the possessions of the Sultan of Zanzibar on the coast of Kenya.

A decade later, in 1890, these sites were transferred to Britain in exchange for control over the coast of Tanganyika. But the British leader met with resistance from the Kikuyu, Vayaki wa Hinga, who was later kidnapped and killed them. After many trials, only in 1920, Kenya was declared an official British colony.

Kikuyu in response to their exclusion from political life in 1921 founded the Association of Young Kikuyu, led by Harry Tuku, but in 1922, Tuku was arrested. Kikuyu protest, clashed with police, 21 people were killed. Then the Association was transformed into the Kenya African Union (AUC), which was subsequently renamed the Kikuyu Central Association (CAC).

In 1928, the CAC became a leader Jomo Kenyatta, known then under the pseudonym «Burning Spear». Trying to achieve the requirements of their organization in the UK, he realized that nothing happens, and went to the Soviet Union, where for two years he studied at Moscow University. From 1935 to 1938 worked with the anthropologist Malinowski at the London School of Economics. In 1938 it published a "Face to Mount Kenya» (Facing Mount Kenya), which explored the history and culture of the Kikuyu. Participated in organizing the 5 th Pan African Congress in 1945.

In 1946, Jomo Kenyatta returned to Africa, where he became the leader of "Kenya African Union", but they stayed a little longer. In May 1951 the first Colonial Secretary, James Griffith visited Kenya. Here, the African Union Kenya presented his list of requirements - from the abolition of discriminatory legislation to be included in the composition of the Legislative Council of the colony of 12 African representatives.

Apparently, the settlers were not going to give up completely, but hoped that London would make a number of concessions. However, Griffis rejected the proposal and suggested CAU [i] reform the Legislative Council so that it included 14 representatives from 30 000 Europeans, Asians, 6 of 100000, 1 24000 from the Arabs, and 5 white settlers, appointed by the Government, from 5,000,000 1,111,113 Africans. . Of course, this was outrageous and caused the creation of some secret organizations.

A little later the British accused the Jomo Kenyatta in the secret manual prohibition of "Mau Mau", for which in 1952 he was sentenced to 7 years in prison. Along with him were arrested 100 leaders of the uprising, and then another 8000 people. In the ensuing 5-7 years of constantly taking place all sorts of rebellion, and the Europeans threw all the new forces, trying to suppress them.

In 1954 the British had to replace the Executive Board of Kenya Council of Ministers consisting of three Europeans, two Asians and one African. In 1957, when the principal leaders of the uprising were dead or arrested, 7 moderate Africans were admitted in the Legislative Council. But Africans were unhappy too low representation, and in 1958 the number of Africans in the Legislative Council was increased to 14. This allowed them to boycott the proposal of the Minister of colonies Lennox-Boyd, a new constitution.

In 1959 Jomo Kenyatta was released and by the 1961-th year became president of Kenya African National Union (KANU). Two years later, in June of 1963, six months before independence, became prime minister of Kenya and the first president of liberated from colonial Kenya in December 1964.