Who opened the first free kindergarten in Russia?



Who opened the first free kindergarten in Russia? October 25, 1872, 135 years ago, the newspaper Tula Provincial Gazette "appeared a short announcement:" With the permission of the trustee of the Moscow School District I open on 1 November this year at the Great Gentry street, in your own home, a kindergarten for children from 3 to 7 . It was signed "Elizabeth Smidovich. Everyone who knew the family physicians Smidovich, grabbed their heads: what's the kindergarten, if eight children themselves! Others shrugged their shoulders, they say, probably, the doctor is doing badly, for foster care, he, no doubt, would be good money to take!

What was surprising tulyan, when the first "Gardener" explained - no fee for child support, she will not take. And the whole thing is designed just for kids to develop harmoniously, the more that they will be here to teach the new. And the share of children in "their" and "foreign" it is not going to all be treated with the same yardstick. And for young students will be assigned the best room - dining room and living room - there was room for children's games and training sessions.

Elizabeth was a good "sitters" - in the summer days, students went out into the garden, and arranging holidays, frolicking, engaged in productions of children's productions. And Vincent Smidovich not remain indifferent to the ideas of the wife - he himself
produced a huge layout with mountains, rivers, sea, bays and islands. On the seashore were grazing herds of miniature cows, kids could not even touch them. He liked and unpretentious performances, and the fact that the children were very uninhibited, and the fact that they are under the supervision of adults studied basics of hygiene. In general, under the leadership of Elizabeth, held classes in drawing, clay modeling, weaving, kids were taught the account, reading, always conducted mobile games.

One of the most "nimble" students was a 5-year-old Vincent Vikentyevich, that "Science" was easy, he feels himself in a kindergarten at home, trying to stir up other pupils, involving them in the game. The only pity is that the doctor Smidovich time the boys were little: Vincent Ignat'evich in November 1864 opened a new, unprecedented institution - a free clinic for coming, and where lost, most of the time. And if he was at home, most often worked in the household chemical and bacteriological laboratories, or carefully conducted meteorological observations, a lot of work on statistics.

A few words about kindergartens in general and Russian in particular. A beautiful, albeit a strange name - "kindergarten" - invented in 1837, the German educator Friedrich Frobel. He and created the world's first "facility for games and training of young children in Blakenburge. True, it did not last long, about two years, and for some reason it was closed. But then the teacher explained, he chose this name because of the fact that, once children are flowers of life, then they should grow gardener, hence the kindergarten ...

I wonder what Frobel formulated the first principles of this kindergarten. Chief among them - do not let your child become a man, but to help by developing the best that nature gave him. To this end, the teacher created his own evolving set - "Gifts Frobel" in which "Gardener" taught children: balls of wool in all colors of the rainbow, wooden balls, cubes, cylinders.

Russia's first kindergarten was the Petersburg institution Adelaide Semenovna Simonovic, which she opened with her husband in 1866. The payment for the maintenance and education of children 3-8 years have made wealthy parents. Simonovic, she thought out outdoor games, children engaged in designing, and even the course rodinovedeniya here was mandatory. And besides, Adelaide S. began to publish a special magazine "Kindergarten". But after two years of establishment was closed.

Little more than existed a kindergarten and a Smidovich. It was opened in 1872 and in 1875, students came to the preschool the last time. Obviously, the angelic patience Elizabeth was only enough for this short period. But perhaps the main reason was still an acute shortage of funds.
However, there is another fact: the "soul" of kindergarten Vikenty Vikentyevich was 8 years old, and he was sent to school. But perhaps the main reason was still an acute shortage of funds.

Yes, many of you, dear readers, it is well known. In 1884, Vincent graduated with a silver medal Tula classical gymnasium and entered the historical-philological faculty of St. Petersburg University, where he acquired the title of the candidate. Later he became interested in ideas of populism. In 1888, he entered the Medical Faculty of University of Dorpat, repeating the path of his father. In 1894, several months practicing at home in Tula, and in the same year as one of the best university graduates were recruited in St. Petersburg Botkin Hospital.
Most readers as he knew by the nature of its other activities - literary, and his nickname - Veresaev.

The range of his creative aspirations was very wide. He wrote the novel "The impasse" (1924) and "Sisters" (1933), documentary research "Pushkin in the life" (1926), "Gogol in his life" (1933) and "Satellites Pushkin" (1937). Veresaev made numerous translations of the monuments of ancient Greek literature, including the "Iliad" (1949) and "The Odyssey" (1953) Homer.

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