Why Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary is still us "Unknown"?



Why Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary is still us "Unknown"? In our history, much remains hidden pages, which shamefully silent in the textbooks and casual, like something minor, is mentioned in the scientific literature. One of these pages - Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary in 1849.

Nicholas I, adopted from Alexander I «baton" Executive gendarme functions in Europe, could not deny the Austrian Emperor in such "trifles", as the pacification of rebellious Hungary. But suddenly, and, as often happened in our history, senseless interference in the affairs of others has led to serious political damage and military embarrassment for Russia.

In 1848, the bourgeois revolution that rocked the longer a throne in Europe, descended to Hungary. In March 1848, in Pest uprising quickly turned into a nation-wide. Virtually the whole country rose against the Habsburgs. Power passed to the Committee of Public Safety. Urgent formed part of the militia - gonveda. To reverse the situation, the Austrian Emperor Ferdinand I (aka "concurrently" Hungarian Ferdinand V) introduced in Hungary troops. But despite their numerical superiority, they began to suffer defeat after defeat.

Particularly badly for the Austrians was affected by the winter of 1848-49 years in Southern Transylvania (in present-day Romania), where their hands were left with fortress Karlsburg. The garrison is threatened with destruction.

 Why Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary is still us "Unknown"? General of Infantry Leaders Alexander
 Austrians came to the aid of the commander of Russian forces in Moldavia and Wallachia, General Alexander Leaders, whose body was in Wallachia just a few day's march from Transylvania. With the permission of Nicholas I, he singled out two small detachments of 7 infantry battalions and seven hundred Cossacks, who on February 2 crossed the border and within three days engaged in battle with the forces gonveda. The militia, commanded by the Polish general Jzef Bem, who had already succeeded in his life repeatedly to war with the Russian failed to withstand the blows of regular troops and began to retreat. But the Austrians did not support the emerging success and, as usual, tried to solve their problems Russian bayonets. Therefore, the general Leaders, always distinguished, unlike the other Russian generals, an enviable degree of independence, persuaded Nicholas I, Russian forces returned in Wallachia.

In the spring of the situation of the Austrian army was desperate. The Hungarians were advancing on all fronts, their parliament passed the Act of Independence of the Republic of Hungary. The young Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph, who had just came to the throne after the abdication of Ferdinand, he turned to Russia to intervene militarily.

 Why Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary is still us "Unknown"? The capture of the fortress of Buda Hungarian revolutionary troops May 21, 1849 Who needs a revolution close to their borders? The response of Nicholas I was firmly and quickly - five army corps invaded Hungary. Command the field marshal Paskevich-Erivan, which has recognized reputation Wizard gendarmerie operations and the title of Prince of Warsaw for the suppression of the uprising in Poland. But the new "laurels" in Hungary, he could not be found.

The total number of the invading army exceeded 180,000 men. For comparison, in the battle of Borodino Kutuzov was able to put up against the French about 150 thousand, of which 20 thousand - the militia.

Together with the Austrians Russian troops have-a-half superiority over gonvedom, moreover weakly trained and poorly armed. The battle plan was simple - while coming from several directions to push the main forces of Hungary to Budapest, where they surround and smash.

 Why Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary is still us "Unknown"? Polish general Jzef Bem Originally offensive developed rapidly. By the end of June, Russian and Austrian troops were already in the 130-150 km from Budapest. The revolutionary government of the city fled. Hungarian troops, while retreating, in some cases, offered stubborn resistance. In reality, the war came to an end. Now any sensible military commander (of the outstanding question is not) it would end within a week. But Paskevych managed to stretch it for another month and a half.

Only in Transylvania, where the independently operated Corps General Liders, events unfolded rapidly. In some fights Hungarian troops were defeated and surrendered. In command of General Bem fled to Turkey.

Paskevich same, wishing to appear in the public opinion of grand strategies, maneuvers in Hungary, instead of a decisive battle. Understand its ingenious action could not only the enemy, but Russian corps commanders. Exhaustion of the Russian troops and their extremely poor supply caused widespread illness that took the lives of more than 11 thousand people. In all, recovered from almost half the army. And this is despite combat deaths of 700 people killed and 2,5 thousand wounded.

Do not it occurred in this period the Hungarians rift in the leadership, everything would have been able to acquire otherwise. But several successful operations, they managed to hold: inflicted a heavy defeat Austrian troops of General Julius Hainan, withstood a serious battle with the main forces Paskiewich near the town of Weiz, and even forced them to retreat, repulsed all the attacks of Russian troops to positions near the river Sajo. But August 13 is not a hopeless situation, the Hungarian Chief Arthur Grgey with 30000th army in 144 guns surrendered to the Russian general Fyodor Rediger. Except in the defense of several garrisons and polupartizanskih action of small units, the Hungarian resistance had ceased.

 Why Russia's war against the Republic of Hungary is still us "Unknown"? The troops received awards, and the Russian Empire - a dubious title of "the gendarme of Europe" doubtful success and huge military spending did not prevent generously reward "winners". Do not splurge and collective awards - 8 units received the St. George's flags, and 4 - St. George's pipe.

Hungary has been returned to the Habsburgs, but the price of this victory for Russia is immeasurable with the result. And it's not about spent 48 million rubles, the sum in those days a gigantic, and not even on the shattered lives. The question is about the prestige of the state and against him in the world. Behind the apparent ease of the victory of Russia "has demonstrated" critical state of all its military system: an anachronism recruit recruitment system, low efficiency of obsolete small arms and artillery, the inability to organize the exploration and supply of warring armies, the rapid fall in the spirit of armies, caused by the ineptitude of the military leadership. Europe concluded that serious modern war Russia not ready, and began avidly gaze at our southern territory.

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