What had done for science, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier?



  What had done for science, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier? May 8, 1794 in Paris, the guillotine severed from the body's head, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier - the outstanding French scientist, one of the founders of modern chemistry. He was only 50 years.

Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born in Paris on Aug. 26, 1743 in a family lawyer. Brilliantly finished college course named Mazarin, the young Lavoisier, following the family tradition and joined the faculty of law and already in 1764 was promoted to counsel. Lawyer, however, he did not. Since the age of 20, Lavoisier tried his hand at many different areas. He wrote dramas and philosophical discourse, is fond of mathematics, making meteorological observations. Studies on the nature of more and more exciting it. Under the guidance of eminent scientists, he studied botany, geology, mineralogy, anatomy, physics and chemistry.

In 1764 the Paris Academy of Sciences announced the contest on the theme - find the best way to cover the streets of the city by combining the brightness, ease of maintenance and savings. Lavoisier took part in it. To increase the sensitivity of his vision to the brightness of light, Lavoisier had hopelessly six weeks in a completely dark room. The work of Lavoisier Prize is not won, but his talent and devotion to science attracted the attention of the Academy - he was awarded a gold medal (1766). Soon (in 1768), the Academy has chosen the young, making the brilliant scientist in the hopes of an associate (ie, corresponding member) in chemistry, and then in real terms (in 1772).

Participation in the Academy is extremely broadened intellectual horizon Lavoisier, and pushed him close to the practical demands. In France, XVIII century, Academy of Sciences was a sort of scientific-technical center, whose responsibilities included the review of new machines and new production methods and other inventions, as well as the resolution of technical problems on behalf of the government. Over 25 years of work at the Academy of Lavoisier gave more than 200 reviews and opinions on a wide variety of techniques.

Lavoisier, who, in his words, "was young, recently entered the realm of science and a craving for fame" was not, however, even the modest chemical laboratory. No lab was at the Academy - all required for experimental work in chemistry scientists must obtain at his own expense. Lavoisier's biographers unanimously argue that the need to have a lot of money to buy expensive equipment for carrying out experiments was the reason that prompted Lavoisier, shortly after his election to the Academy, to join the "Company leases" (1769). This organization took the capitalists "at the mercy of" indirect taxes, ie, has contributed annually to the treasury a certain sum, which is then collected in excess of the population.

Participating in the tax farm, Lavoisier became huge fortune - about 1200000 livres, which allowed him to set the excellent laboratory, equipped with its expensive, precision instruments (scales, barometers, thermometers), and spend from 6 to 10 thousand livres annually for experimental works. Some experiments on the synthesis of water cost him 50000 livres.

Lavoisier's Laboratory quickly became the main center of scientific life of Paris. In it were constantly the most eminent French scientists: chemists Berthollet, Fourcroy, Guiton de Morva, mathematics Lagrange, Laplace, Monge, Vandermonde, and her visiting the most famous scientists in other countries: Franklin, Watt, Priestley, Blagden. Over the years of her continuous flow out experimental studies have opened a new epoch in chemistry. Lavoisier conducted these studies, as both an academician, farmer and manager of the powder thing (in 1776), all it took him a lot of time and effort. Only thanks to his brilliant talents, a rare disability, habit, and the strictest order, and in particular the reasonable allocation of his day, Lavoisier would systematically engage in experimental work. He gave her 6 hours a day: from 6 to 9 am and from 7 to 10 pm; rest of the time meant for official business. One day a week entirely devoted himself to science.

  What had done for science, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier? Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) is depicted during the experiment to determine the composition of the water by ignition of the mixture of hydrogen and oxygen by an electric spark (engraving XIX century.).
 The flowering of creative activity Lavoisier comes at a time from 1772 to 1789 years. During this time he did, indeed, a gigantic work, the result of which was kicked out of Chemistry scholastic theories, conducting in her quantitative methods of research and the creation of a new chemical language.

As a result of his experiments Lavoisier created a new classification of chemical compounds. Ordinary matter, such as water, proved difficult. A is regarded as difficult, such as metals were in the table "simple bodies". He discovered oxygen, he explained what is happening during combustion, ignition, recovery. Showed that in living organisms, oxygen combines with food, provides energy, analogous to the process of combustion. All that did Lavoisier, called the "chemical revolution".

 
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