Prince Theodore of Smolensk (Black). As son-in-Khan of the Golden Horde became a Russian saint?



  Prince Theodore of Smolensk (Black). As son-in-Khan of the Golden Horde became a Russian saint? 18 (5 under Art. Art.) March Russian Orthodox Church honors the memory of святого благоверного князя Феодора Смоленского (Черного) и его чад Давида и Константина. Всего же в русском православии канонизировано порядка пятидесяти князей With virtually all of them were built in the saints in the period Golden Yoke .

It is interesting that on certain holy princes, even in the annals there is no mention, but their lives were compiled through many decades after their death. Naturally, the description of their lives largely mythologized. In this regard, Theodore of Smolensk "lucky" in historical documents, there are many references to the various stages of his stormy life.

To the credit of the monk Anthony, constituting in the XV century, the first saint of Fedor, he tried to capture the key moments are not sinless life a prince. True, he carefully mentioned that the prince has a strict morality and piety, has always patronized the Orthodox faith, built churches, gave alms to orphans and the poor, and before death prinarodno confessed all his sins.

Rationale for the sanctity of the prince's leave to theologians. We look at Theodore of Smolensk, whose name is associated with many interesting events in Russia, from the standpoint of history.

Born Theodore unknown. He was born in the family of Prince Rostislav of Smolensk Mstislavich about 1240. After his father received from his brothers during the reign of small and poor town Mozhaisk, who clearly did not fit into the ambitious plans for Fedor. Ability to rise significantly in the prince's rating "came to him after the death of Prince Basil of Rostov and his brother, Constantine, had kept the table in Yaroslavl. Sons after the deaths of the princes remained, and the principality to take over the widow of Basil, which helped to 1,111,118. boyars [/url] .

In the hope of marrying the prince's daughter, Anastasia (from other sources - Maria), Theodore went to Yaroslavl. In the capital of the kingdom he came to the service as a prince, and already in place, to win the Princess Xenia, and the boyars, was able to resolve the issue of married . It happened after 1260. The real power in Yaroslavl Fedor obviously did not get the princess and the boyars took him only representational functions. So when the opportunity to become famous in the field and inversely to save some money, Fedor took advantage.

Just worth mentioning one essential detail. In the annals Fedor came in with a nickname of Black, about which some historians have put forward an interesting version. Perhaps originally it was called Chermnykh - ie beautiful. He really had a truly princely appearance - he was handsome, tall and strong. And the black, he later became, apparently not without its real business.

Around 1266, Fyodor went with his retinue in the Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde, the khan Mengu-Timur. Moreover, in the horde, he arrived as the service of Prince, who had yet to win over Khan. In the courtyard of Khan Fyodor quickly progressed. Mengu Timur was kind and brought a successful prince, who participated in the campaigns of the Khan's army. Pleasure in it and khansha Dzhidzhekhatun who decides to marry Theodore to his daughter. It is worth noting that during this period in the horde had many problems, from her strong Khan broke a leg, arm-in-itself part of the Russian principalities (southern and north-east). Therefore Mengu Timur carefully intimacy with the experienced and brave generals.

This period of life in the Life of Fyodor read: "The king (ie Khan) have always commanded him predstoyati at yourself and the cup of his hand priimashe, and three summer derzhashe it. The queen, her daughter myslyashe vdati his wife. " Then Khan with Fedor is not related, because he decided to return to Yaroslavl. Perhaps to him the news about the death of his wife.

In his principality Fedor went only with his company, without obtaining the support of the khan. In Yaroslavl it simply was not allowed. According to the Life, the boyars' not prinyasha it into hail, but rekosha him: "This degree of Princess Xenia, and we have Prince Michael". While Theodore was in the horde, in Yaroslavl boyars put on a reign of his infant son.

Fedor had to return to the Horde, where he held his wedding with Khan's daughter, which in Orthodoxy name of Anna. For the Life of Theodore received a dowry of 36 cities, which is extremely doubtful, as in the above list in the main figure Horde city. Soon Theodore had two sons, who were later canonized along with him.

His new family member Mengu Timur preferred to use as a military leader. In 1277 Fedor of Khan's troops fought in Ossetia. And next year, along with Prince Mikhail Belozersky went to subdue Volga Bulgaria. According to Arab sources in Bulgaria famous Princes extreme cruelty, occupied and looted about 40 cities and hundreds of villages. In the horde Fedor returned with rich booty.

After his death in Yaroslavl, son Michael, Fyodor supported Horde squad allegedly there to reign. For Theodore started the "black" period of life when he had to fight on Russian soil and burn the Russian cities. For a start it in the year 1280 captures Smolensk, where the governor keeps his nephew. It is curious that the capture of Prince Theodore of Smolensk after a few hundred years, remembers Ivan the Terrible In a letter to Andrew Kurbsky: "And the prince Fedor Rostislavich, your father, in Smolentsev for Easter Colico blood proliyal there! And in the holy due! ".

Then Fedor took part in the bloody strife sons, Alexander Nevsky, Andrei and Dimitri, were devastated when many Russian cities. As part of a "Dedenevo battle" went to rob the city of Vladimir Russia. His name is linked ruin of Vladimir, burning Mozhdysk and Pereslavl-Zaleski . In total, then, was seized and looted a dozen cities.

Then in 1296 there was a prince of Vladimir Congress party which was the prince Fedor. The princes attempted to legitimize the last sections of land. During the "debate" they just started fighting and even tried to draw against each other arms. With barely two bishops were able to calm down. It is curious that among the "whistle blowers" three future saints - Prince Fedor Smolensky, Daniel of Moscow and Mikhail of Tver.

In the years 1298-99 Prince Fedor twice tried to regain Smolensk, but the city withstood the siege. Unsuccessful campaign to Smolensk in 1299 was the last in his military career. Returning from it, Fedor seriously ill and was in the autumn to prepare for death, taking monastic vows. In the Life tells that before the death of Prince Fedor commanded to make it into the courtyard of the Savior-Transfiguration Monastery, which brought together people of Yaroslavl. "And the prince confessed before all the people, if you have sinned against someone, or had not loved anyone. And those who have sinned before him, and hated it - all blessed and forgiven and all the blame on himself took before God and people.

In the monastery the prince and was buried. Later laid to rest beside him sons David and Constantine, which chronicles there is only a few brief mentions. At the time of the sanctity of the dead no one thought about the prince and his sons simply forgotten. It is stipulated that the veneration of saints, princes immediately after the death was a rare phenomenon, it awarded only especially famous for and loved by the people, as Oleg of Ryazan or Dovmont Pskov. The rest, church or secular authorities recalled through many tens of years due to political necessity. So it was with Prince Theodore of Smolensk.

 
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