What we know about Ernst Werner von Siemens?



  What we know about Ernst Werner von Siemens? December 6, 1892, 115 years ago, in different locations in Europe, two people, determining the moral climate in the continent, experienced a different feeling. The Russians have witnessed another triumph of the great composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, who this day was held back two premieres. Opera Iolanta, the libretto written by the younger brother of the maestro - Modest Tchaikovsky and the ballet "The Nutcracker", without which even today, after more than a century it is difficult to imagine Christmas in Europe.

But the Germans were defeated in deep mourning - to 76-year of life, is not it reached the birthday of one week, died Ernst Werner von Siemens, the pride of Germanic people, the product of work of his firm and now is a good gift as a Christmas and New Year and in the daily routine.

But if the life and work of Peter Tchaikovsky Much has been written, then the figure of von Siemens is less well known to readers. Today we will try to fill this gap.

Thus, the Verner was born on Dec. 13, 1816 in the family landscape designer (then called it a little differently: a specialist in agriculture in the palaces and estates), Christian Ferdinand Siemens and Eleonore. He was not the first nor the last child - when the couple in 1822 moved to a new residence in another estate, in their family already had six children.

Because the estate is located away from major roads, Siemens decided to save on commuting to school. Children are initially taught grandmother Eleanor, their great-grandmother, which a priori could be very demanding to the grit and rather spoiled them, than taught. That's why a little later, Christian decided it would be far more useful to bring to the children of teachers from the city.

Most of the young Werner struck a history teacher who does not just call any date, and each lesson was accompanied by his compulsory instructive conclusion, most of the time giving the reasons of occurrence of a situation and considering its development. That is taught by a younger generation of Siemens the fact that without an analysis of the past and vision for the future, it is difficult to expect that the event will develop in the right direction. As there is no comfortable home without walls, floor and roof, so it is impossible to imagine success without a clear understanding of what has become the inner springs of what happened. These lessons Werner remember for a lifetime ...

The 15-year old teenager devoted to membership in the church community. This meant, among other things, separation from a home and start independent lives. She began to travel with Werner in Lbeck to continue studies at a local gymnasium. Thus, it was left to himself and no one was allowed to interfere in the choice of its future path. Siemens was determined to devote himself to science and technology. Around this time he decided to enter the Berlin Building Academy.

But 17 years Werner has somewhat changed their perception of what he wants to do. Since high school he graduated with honors, mentors advised him to enter the Guards of the Royal Artillery. For this, he went to Berlin. Moreover, on foot. Not that it was a pity money to associated transport, just a young man once wanted to check that the choice was not wrong, but at the same time to see whether he will be ready for the great physical strain. Madness? Rather, commitment and perseverance.

This hike is not made on artillery bosses unimpressed. As soon as Siemens has crossed the threshold of how he almost immediately pointed to the threshold. And when the guy in despair almost uttered lip, a few stood up and offered to try their hand at Magdeburg Artillery Brigade. Like, does it matter where he became an officer. I had to put up ...

At the new location Werner has proved very intelligent students who did not have to persuade the school. Some items he caught on the fly, and those that trouble, he was "overcome" through hard work over textbooks and notes. Soon, Siemens became one of the best students. And won the trip to Berlin. Exactly three years, in a joint engineering and artillery school. And here his allies were diligence and painstaking attention, the ability to penetrate into the depths of a science.

But three years later, at age 21 with a "tail" Werner Siemens awarded the military rank "Lieutenant" and given a four-week vacation with leaving home. Those four weeks will be his last conducted in a comfortable home environment. Eleanor had already been ill and spent less than a year after that. And loyal to her husband could not stay long in this world, went into another world in less than six months ...

Werner was the eldest among ten of their children, and shortly before the death of the mother promised her on her deathbed, that will replace the younger parents. And his words are not separated from the thing: He took with him in Magdeburg younger brother William, who turned 15 years old.

More had to be very difficult. Officer's salary on to feed ten mouths, fell short. And Verner was left one way out: to invent. Of particular poignancy of his first invention - the method of electroplating gold and silver gave the fact that most of the job description Siemens made in ... prison, where he threw for what was a knee to a duel during his comrade in the service. Because of this, Werner for a while was "restricted to leave" and sent to England 19-year old William. Willie not only managed to sell a very profitable method of electroplating (it's fair to say that a little earlier this way has opened in St. Petersburg, the inventor of the Jacobi), but also picked up the bacillus of love for "the islanders". Soon he returned to Albion, marries, and until the end of days will stay there.

 After some time, precisely on Oct. 1, 1847, Werner Siemens and his cousin Johann Georg Halske founded jointly by the Organization for the construction and development of the telegraph Siemens and Halske. The fact that Werner could not be an entrepreneur, because he was an officer, but they prohibit such activity ...

I think it makes sense to list some of the inventions of Werner Siemens. This in-phase synchronous telegraph, the dynamo, the mercury standard of resistance, the world's first electric railway with the city by tram, moving with electricity. This is a machine for covering up the copper wire gutta-percha, and the world's first mechanical device to account for the ongoing volume of water (now a well-known water meter, which today is in many apartments). Werner paved underground telegraph network between Berlin, Frankfurt and Aachen, the first submarine cable in the open sea (line Bona - Cagliari). He is one of the first carried out street lighting electric lamps, its factories made seven cables linking Europe with America. Branches of the company were opened in St. Petersburg and Tiflis, the Caucasus and the firm engaged in oil production.

In 1880 at the exhibition in Mannheim Pfaltsgau Werner von Siemens introduced the world's first electric lift (elevator). Two years later, the inventor has paved the test line which passed Electric cars have received a few decades later, the name of trolleybuses. In 1883 flew the first dirigible with an electric motor. But after the death of Werner's company under the leadership of his son William has released even a fighter.

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