Why is World Day of whales? The history of whales and whaling

  Why is World Day of whales? The history of whales and whaling 19 February international community celebrates World Day of whales. In 1986, the International Whaling Commission - IWC (International Whaling Commission - IWC) imposed a ban on commercial whaling and set that day.

  Environmentalists many countries, this day is considered to protect not only whales, but all marine mammals are in danger of destruction. What caused the decision to ban whaling?

In memory of the older generations still alive glory of 1,111,114. Soviet whalers [/url] , Of the whaling fleet, which went on the difficult fishing in the Antarctic for 8-10 months. Operetta Dunayevsky "White Acacia" talked about the whalers, were songs dedicated to this profession. Some may still remember the words of the popular 50-s song: "I did beat the whales near the ice edge, cod liver oil to provide children ...". I even remember that in Kaliningrad - there based whaling fleet "Yuri Dolgoruky, in canteens and shops selling sausage and meatballs from whale meat.

And what we know about whales?
Somewhat refreshed in memory information about these amazing marine 1,111,116. mammalian [/url] Detachment of whales, which scientists are divided into two large suborders: toothed whales and baleen.
Of the toothed whales, the biggest - sperm whale, its length is about 15-20 feet, feeds on fish, squid and cuttlefish. Sperm whales, thanks to the special structure of the head, can dive to great depths and stay there for up to 2 hours. One tooth whale weighs about 300 grams! In the huge asymmetrical skull whale entered the largest mammalian brain - to 8 kilograms. It was a sperm whale in the gut formed a costly substance greyish color - amber, which is used in perfumery for giving firmness expensive spirits. The pieces of amber may weigh from a few grams to 13 kg, and the mass of the biggest "nugget", found in the sperm whale - 122 kg. For toothed whales are also the family of beaked (southern and northern bottlenose), dolphins, porpoises, beluga and narwhal. Most ominous of all toothed whales - is Orca , They are less sperm, only 8-10 meters, and some of them belong more to the dolphins, not whales. Killer whales attacking seals and fur seals, and sometimes even attack themselves whales.

Another suborder - baleen whales. So they are called because instead of teeth from the upper jaw are hanging two rows of horny plates - mustache. These solid plate in the past used to make corsets. Baleen whales feed on plankton, krill and small fish, passing through the plate a lot of water, as if ottsezhivaya food. By Baleen Whales are baleen whales, gray and right whales. These are the whales and are the most important objects of whaling. The family owned striped largest in the world of blue, or blue whales, fin whales, sei whales, humpback (Gorbachev) and minke whales. Blue whales reach a length of 33 meters and their weight - up to 150 tons. This is the largest animal that ever existed on our planet. Just born blue calf is already up to 8 meters per feeding a baby drinks 100 liters of milk. In second place among the giants are fin whales, their length reaches 22 meters, and the distinguishing features is that they have the right side white and the left - black. Sei whales, or ivasevy whale inhabit the coast of Kamchatka and the southern Kuril chain, occurs in the Barents and White Seas . Its length is up to 18.8 meters. When something has been distributed widely, but now their number has declined.

  Why is World Day of whales? The history of whales and whaling Кит-горбач из семейства полосатиков. К усатым относятся и серые киты, они не такие большие, как полосатики, зато совершают самые длинные миграции. Каждую осень серые киты проплывают несколько тысяч километров от своих пастбищ в Беринговом проливе and Chukchi Sea to the calm lagoons of California, where they multiply. And in February set off on their way back and float 3 months, only occasionally stopping to sleep.
The family of whales is represented by two species - the polar and Greenland, or the Japanese or the southern plain. These whales have a massive body and looks clumsy. The head is large, takes up to one third the length of the animal. The pectoral fins are short and broad. Mouth strongly curved. Like all baleen whales, the family of smooth able to eat very small meals and has a dark, narrow and tall with a thin mustache lastiny fringe.

And how long whales became the target of fisheries?
The founders of whaling, eventually engulfed the entire global ocean, considered to be the proud people of the Basques, the people of southern France and northern Spain. Around the XI-XII centuries, they began to carve the desiccated whales (thrown on the land) and the digest of whale fat oil for lighting and heating, and the meat used in food. By the beginning of XVI century, the Basques have discovered that whale oil and other products of mining are in high demand and can serve as a valuable object Trade . Thus began commercial whaling.

In the middle of the XVI century the British fitted out his first whaling expedition to the shores of Spitsbergen. Court belonged to the Moscow trading company, established under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth for trade between Russia and Britain. The company has received from fishing in the Arctic huge profits. By the middle of XVII century in the area of Spitsbergen whaling were not less than three hundred vessels from the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and France. Inveterate whalers were the colonists of New England. The first target species in the Atlantic began bowhead whales, and then other species, especially sperm whales, which provided ambergris and spermaceti. Spermaceti used for the production of 11,111,120. 11111129 candles. special quality with bright light and a steady flame.

  Why is World Day of whales? The history of whales and whaling Since the whales were caught in the old days in the late XVIII-early XIX centuries whalers left the area of Spitsbergen, where the whales were nearly exterminated, and redeployed to the waters of Greenland. Life whalers at the time the fishery vividly depicted in the beautiful novel "Moby Dick, or The White Whale" the American writer Herman Melville. By the end of XIX century whalers, mostly from England and Holland, fully 11,111,126. 11111129 destroyed. gray whales in the Atlantic, and almost completely - bowhead whales around the Northern Hemisphere. American whalers widely deployed its operations in the Pacific and the temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere, where they were almost destroyed the southern right whales. We stayed baleen whales. They, unlike whales and sperm whales, drowned after the slaughter, which made it impossible to process them afloat. In 1863 Norwegian Svend Foyne invented the harpoon gun and offered whale carcasses pump air to enable them to tow to shore processing stations. The first whaling ship with a steam engine, the harpoon gun and the compressor came on fishing in 1868 and has extracted 30 whales off the coast of Norway.

Another Norwegian captain Carl Anton Larsen, who took part in the Antarctic expedition of the Swedish explorer Otto Nordenskjld (not to be confused with the Arctic explorer Baron Nils Erik A. Nordenskjold) stands at the origins of the Antarctic Whaling , The biggest in history. Thanks to Larsen in 1904 to about. South Georgia Whaling was built base, which is already in the first season brought the founders of the profit of 70% of the invested capital. For some ten years of fishing around South Georgia were extracted 29 thousand whales!

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